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If there is a "97" at the top of your address label, this is the last Bulletin you will receive -- until you send your membership renewal for 1998.
May 8 - 10 Annual Meeting: See inside for details, field trip insert and registration form. Fri. - Sun.
May 10, Sun. Board Meeting: At the annual meeting, on Sunday morning.
March 2, Mon. Meeting: 7 P.M. Small Business Development Center, SE 1st & Dorian, Pendleton. Kari Yanksey will present a program on the uses of native plants in dyeing.
April 6, Mon. Meeting: 7 P.M. Small Business Development Center, SE 1st & Dorian, Pendleton. Berta Youtie will update the activities of The Nature Conservancy in northeastern Oregon.
March 9, Mon. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Room 2087, Cordley Hall, OSU campus. Ankie Camacho will present the "McDonald-Dunn Research Forest -- What species are there? -- A survey of the plants and fungi."
Research Grants: The chapter is offering several research grants of from $300 to $500. See the February, 1998 Bulletin for details.
March 30, Mon. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Room 109, main campus, LCC, Eugene. Ed Alverson, Nature Conservancy botanist at Willow Creek and featured on Oregon Field Guide, will tell us the"Ecological History of the Willamette Valley." He'll tell us about the history and fate of the wet prairie and other original habitats, and apply these ideas to conservation and restoration plans. Directions: From 30th Ave., turn south on Eldon-Schafer Drive, go past Oak Hill School and park in LCC's south parking lot, east end. Walk downstairs to Science Building. Entrance to room 109 on south side of building. NOTE: CHANGE FROM 4TH TO 5TH MONDAY (this month only).
Ed will also lead a prairie field trip at Willow Creek, possibly in June. Details later.
April 18, Sat. Field Trip: Explore the back country of Mt. Pisgah with Dave Predeek and Bruce Newhouse. We'll enjoy the spring splendor, look for a couple of rarities up there (Aster vialis, Senecio macounii, Cimicifuga elata, etc.) and examine a restoration site. This is a big, diverse area, with some spectacular spring blooms and lots of surprises. The scrub oak/buckbrush community in one area we'll visit will make you think you've ventured into southern Oregon chaparral. Meet: S. Eugene H.S. parking lot, 9 A.M., bring lunch, hand lens and binoculars if you have them, sturdy shoes for the steep slopes, and a sense of spring adventure.
April 27, Mon. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Room 109, main campus, LCC, Eugene. Just in time for spring gardening, Mike Fahey, state president of NPSO, will share some great tips in, "My Experiences Growing Northwest Native Plants." Mike's slide-illustrated talk is based on the development of his own Vancouver, Washington garden, which has over 100 native species. Directions: See March meeting above.
March 24, Tues. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Central Oregon Environmental Center, 16 NW Kansas, Bend. Man and nature in East Africa. Our own Stu Garrett will show slides of his photo safari to the Serengeti plains and northern Tanzania and tell us of his adventures among the Masai and Meru tribesmen.
March 10, Tues. Meeting: 7 P.M. Room 207, OIT campus Mike and Jannice Cutler and David Lebo will be speaking on lichens, bryophytes and fungi of the southern Cascades. Refreshments will be served. Call Susan for more information.
March 4, Wed. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Mosier School. Chapter member and Great Plains native, Arlene Larrison, will present a slide show, "the Wildflowers of the Southern Great Plains."
March 10, Tues. Meeting: 7 P.M. Room ???, First United Methodist Church, 1838 Jefferson St., Portland. Melissa Darby will present a discussion of "The Native American Uses of Wapato on the Lower Columbia River."
March 14, Sat. Field Trip: Three Bench Loop. Join trip leader Russ Jolley for a trip up the Gorge to see Lomatium columbianum and L. grayi, Cardamine pulcherrima, Crocidium, Plagiobothrys, and balsamroot, to name a few. A great hike to start the season. Steep climb in the beginning (200 ft. elev. gain) for some great views along this 3 mi. RT walk. Leave: 8:30 A.M., Gateway/99th Ave. Park & Ride, southeast corner of parking lot. Take exit 7 from I-84, turn immediately right onto 97 E. 99th Ave. Trailhead located on S.R. 14 at mile post 79, at the far end of Doug's Beach parking area at 10 A.M. For more information, call Greg Stone.
March 28, Sat. Field Trip: Major Creek wildflower photography workshop. Join Mike McKeag and Shane Latimer as we get down on our knees and pay homage to spring blossoms. Spring blooms should be well under way at Major Creek, with Suksdorfia violacea and Viola sheltonii promised highlights. Expect a gathering of peers, not a workshop led by "experts." It is an opportunity to share knowledge and ideas, on a field trip tailored to the special needs of photography. Depending on group enthusiasm, we may do it again. Meet: 8:30 A.M., Gateway Park & Ride, Portland. Second mtng. place: 10 A.M., start of road 1230, SR 14, MP 71. For more information, contact Mike McKeag, firstname.lastname@example.org or Shane Latimer, email@example.com.
April 11, Sat. Field Trip: Mock's Crest. Join Lauren Walker, with P.S.U. and Urban Eco Systems, along with students and staff from Ockley Green Middle School. They will present their project, funded by Metro, which includes the evaluation and design of Mock's Crest and possible other Urban Greenspaces for the revegetation of native species. This is a chance to work with students and share some of the history of our metropolitan area. The event is from 10 A.M. to noon. Meet at Mock's Crest at the westernmost end of N. Ainsworth St. For more information, call Greg Stone.
March 19, Thurs. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Room 171, Science Building, Southern Oregon University. Paul Hosten, recently back from South Africa, will talk about the vegetation of South Africa and some similarities with vegetation in southwestern Oregon.
For information on South Coast Chapter, contact Bruce Rittenhouse.
March 12, Thurs. Meeting: 7 P.M. Room 310, Douglas County Courthouse, Roseburg.
March 16, Mon. Meeting: 7 P.M. Room 225, United Methodist Church, 600 State St. NE, Salem. Hal Gard, ODOT Environmental Services, will talk about "The Prehistoric Use of Camas in the Valley."
April 1 - June 3 Class: This chapter, in cooperation with Chemeketa Community College, presents a ten week course on "Wildflower and Native Plant Identification." The first class is on Wednesday, April 1. Each class is three hours, and there will be five evening classes, two Wednesday evening field trips, and three Saturday field trips. There is a limit of 25 registrants. The course is taught by Claire Hibler and Wilbur Bluhm. Registration opens March 4. For more information call Chemeketa Community College. 503-399-5139.
April 18, Sat. Field Trip: Hebo Lake. Long-time NPSO members, George and Harriet Schoppert, will lead our first spring trip with an easy walk to Hebo Lake to see Calypso orchids, Erythronium and other early spring bloomers. Location of the trip may change, depending on their scouting results. Meet: 8 A.M., K-Mart parking lot on Mission St., Salem. Contact George or Harriet.
April 25, Sat. Field Trip: Tremain Arkley's Place. Visit the Arkley's 14 acre home near Independence, where they are diligently exploring ways to use native species to restore once-farmed vernal pools, riparian areas and upland forest. There is also a five acre patch of old-growth forest to explore. Meet: 9 A.M., Independence's Riverfront Park at the boat launch. Contact: Tremaine at firstname.lastname@example.org.
May 2, Sat. Field Trip: Butte Creek Falls: George and Harriet Schoppert will lead an easy trip to the floristically diverse Butte Creek Falls. Meet: 8 A.M., K-Mart parking lot on Mission St. in Salem. Contact George or Harriet.
March 18, Wed. Meeting: 7 P.M. Forest and Range Sciences Laboratory, Gekeler Lane and C Ave., La Grande. Elizabeth Crowe, Forest Service ecologist, will present a slide show on some of the different riparian habitats in the Blue Mountains. She will talk about the plant community as a whole, and then focus on certain species. Business meeting at 8 P.M. On Wednesday, April 15, one of our local weed experts will will enlighten us about the latest weed research. More details in the April Bulletin.
IMPORTANT NOTE TO FIELD TRIP PARTICIPANTSField trips take place rain or shine, so proper dress and footwear are essential. Trips may be strenuous and/or hazardous. Participation is at your own risk. Please contact the trip leader or chapter representative about difficulty, distance, and terrain to be expected on field trips. Bring water and lunch. All NPSO field trips are open to the public at no charge (other than contribution to carpool driver) and newcomers 'and visitors are always welcome.
NOTICE TO FIELD TRIP CHAIRS AND LEADERSThe Forest Service and other agencies have set policies limiting group size in many wilderness areas to 12. The reason is to limit human impacts on these fragile areas. Each group using wilderness areas should be no larger than 12.
POSTAL NOTICEBulletin of the Native Plant Society of Oregon; John Robotham, Editor; 117 NW Trinity P1. #28, Portland, OR 97209.
Published monthly. Subscription price $18/year. ISSN 0884-599. Date and issue number on page 1.
Opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors of the articles. They do not represent the opinions of the Native Plant Society of Oregon, unless so stated.
Guidelines for Contributors to the BulletinThe NPSO Bulletin is published monthly as a service to members and the public.
I wanted to use this space to make my personal appeal to all members of NPSO to send a contribution to the project. I have made a contribution and plan to continue on an annual basis. I feel it is important to the recognition of the plant diversity of Oregon to have a Flora dedicated to the plants of our state. It would also replace Jepson, Hitchcock and Peck as field manuals needed to botanize in Oregon. This in itself would be a good reason for supporting it.
Contributions should be sent to Scott Sundberg, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Cordley Hall 2082, Corvallis, OR 97331-2902. Checks should be made out to: Oregon State University Foundation. Please note on the check that it is for the Oregon Flora Project. A suggested level of contribution would be $1.00 per month or $12 per year. Of course more would be appreciated.
I believe that Floras in general are desirable and worth supporting. I joined the Friends of the Jepson Herbarium and maintained my membership for several years until the Jepson Manual was issued. It will take several years to complete the Oregon Flora and we will need to make a long-term commitment. I hope all NPSO members will do what they can to help bring this about.
Over the past three months, the Fish and Wildlife Service has notified NPSO of "Proposals" for listing Plagiobothrys hirtus, Thelypodium howellii, Erigeron decumbens and Lupinus sulphureus ssp. kincaidii as endangered species. I have forwarded these notices to our R & E Chair, Bruce Rittenhouse, for any appropriate action.
Here is a summary of the budget passed at the January meeting. We are expecting an income of $36,650 for 1998. of this, 49% will come from membership dues, 31% from the Environmental Federation of Oregon, 8% from ODA Plant Conservation Program and 12% from miscellaneous sources.
Our projected expenses amount to $42,140. This is about $5,000 more than our income. The difference was designed to reduce our carryover which is projected to be about $15,000 at the end of 1998. The Bulletin costs make up 17.8% of the expenses, chapter share of the dues amounts to 15.1%, publication of Kalmiopsis will utilize 8.3%, administration costs amount to 17.4%, and membership in the Environmental Federation of Oregon is projected to take 5.4%. The largest portion of our expenses, 40.8%, is used to fund grants, internships, Flora/Atlas/Carex projects and for other educational purposes.
As I write this (February 3) I notice that the Synthyris reniformis is in bloom in my garden -- so spring cannot be very far away.
Mike Fahey, President
Article VIII, Section 2, Nominating Committee. On line 1, change from existing wording: "By November 15 of each year" to the new wording: "At the annual meeting each year." This change is recommended to give the nominating committee more time to find suitable candidates to run for NPSO offices.
Article VIII, Section 2, Nominating Committee. On line 3, change from existing wording: "The Committee shall report to the President by December 15" to the new wording: "The Committee shall report to the President by December 1." This change is recommended to make the report of the committee correspond to deadlines for submission of material to the editor of the Bulletin, for inclusion in the January issue.
And in green underwood and cover Blossom by blossom the Spring begins.
Michael J. Albrecht
Kimberly A. Conley
Lorne A. Fitts
Christine Ott Hopkins
Andrew J. Ortis
Bertie J. Weddell
Anne and Karl Wenner
Mark Lankton and Deirdre Sartorius
Nancy and Ed Dowdy
Richard L. McDaniel
Persons interested in applying for funding can obtain a copy of the program policy and guidelines from Dan Luoma, Research Grants Committee Chair, 3740 NW Harrison Ave., Corvallis, OR 97330. The material may also be obtained here. Research proposals are due by April 1, 1998.
To receive more information and an application, which must be submitted by May 1, please contact Harriet Schoppert.
Friday evening, May 8: Check-in begins at 5 P.M. at the Mosier Grange Hall. Come by to pick up your name tag and attend our fabulous social. At the social we will serve refreshments and finger foods, bid on treasures in a silent auction (bidding will close at 8:15 P.M.) and visit a bygone era as living history experts Jerry and Mike Igo bring to life a scene from Lewis and Clark's trek through the Columbia Gorge (6:30 P.M.). Bring your dancing shoes for the Cascade Trio who will play at the Grange from 7 until 10 P.M. (No alcoholic beverages are allowed in the Mosier Grange Hall).
Saturday morning, May 9: Gather at the Mosier School parking lot by 8:45 A.M. for all field trips. You can check in and pick up your name tag at the parking lot between 8:30 and 9:00 A.M. If you pre-ordered a sack lunch, you can pick it up here between 8:30 and 8:45 A.M. All field trips will leave from Mosier School at 9: A.M. and will end by 4:30 P.M. at the latest.
Saturday evening: Socializing and beverages will be available at 5:30 P.M. at the Grange Hall. The banquet will begin at 6 P.M. After the banquet we will have the president's message and NPSO business.
To top off the evening, our guest speaker, Andrea Raven, will introduce us to a rare and lovely native plant which haunts a few wet mountain meadows just north and south of the Columbia River Gorge. Andrea, who is Conservation Biologist with the Berry Botanic Garden in Portland, Oregon, will describe her on-going research on the status and conservation of pale blue-eyed grass (Sisyrinchium sarmentosum), and also discuss seed banking as a conservation technique.
Sunday morning, May 10: The State Board meeting will be held in the Grange Hall at 9 A.M. All are welcome. For those not attending the Board meeting, there will be an optional tour of Milestone Nursery, a native plant nursery in Lyle, Washington. Mo and Larry Miles started the nursery about four years ago and have been having increasing success learning how to grow our Gorge natives, such as Barrett's penstemon, bitterroot, balsamroot, lupines, Oregon sunshine, and lomatiums.
Camping: Memaloose State Park (4 miles east of Mosier on I-84) 800-452-5687; Horsethief Lake State Park (2 miles east of Dallesport, WA on Highway 14) 206-753-2027; Sherwood and Robinhood Campgrounds on Hood River Ranger District (about 25 and 30 miles, respectively, south of Hood River on Highway 35) 541-352-6002. It is also possible to camp at the Igo's place (6 mile drive from the Mosier Grange) -- request a map when you send in your registration.
Moderately priced rooms can be found in Hood River at the Vagabond Lodge (541-386-2992), Hood River Hotel (800-386-1859), and Best Western Hood River Inn (800-528-1234). Carson Hot Springs Resort in Carson, WA (800-607-3678) offers lodgings and the best hot soak in the Mid Columbia. The Williams House Inn (The Dalles, OR, 541-296-2889) has fine rooms in a beautifully restored Victorian. For a taste of luxury try Skamania Lodge, in Stevenson , WA (509-427-7700), Inn of the White Salmon, in White Salmon, WA (509-493-2335), or the Columbia Gorge Hotel, in Hood River, OR (541-386-5566).
The Siskiyou National Forest has released the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the proposed NICORE nickel-laterite mine. The mine, if approved, will seriously and irrevocably impact the Rough and Ready Creek Area of Critical Environmental Concern (ACEC), the Rough and Ready Creek Botanical Area and the unprotected wilderness of the South Kalmiopsis Roadless Area. Rough and Ready Creek, a proposed National Wild and Scenic River with crystal clear waters and exceptional botanical richness, would be irreversibly harmed.
We must flood the Forest Service Ranger District and the desks of our elected representatives with letters opposing the NICORE mine and demanding permanent protection for the Rough and Ready Creek watershed. Please help preserve this unique watershed and its botanical values by submitting your letters to the Forest Service by March 16.
Four separate mine sites in the South Kalmiopsis Roadless Area.
The bulldozing of a haul route for 25-ton ore trucks and other heavy equipment through the South Kalmiopsis and the Rough and Ready Botanical Area, impacting at least 60 sensitive plant populations. The preferred alternative calls for blasting road in road in solid rock beside Rough and Ready Creek and constructing ridge roads that would scar the watershed and river for centuries to come.
The construction of as many as seven different crossings of Rough and Ready Creel and nine of its perennial tributaries (25-ton ore trucks would be driving over Rough and Ready Creek many thousands of time per year).
The stockpiling and processing of ore on the Rough and Ready Area of Critical Environmental Concern (ACEC).
The introduction of a virulent non-native pathogen, fatal to Rough and Ready Creek's beautiful and ancient streamside Port Orford cedar, and the introduction of noxious weeds.
The DEIS and the Biological Evaluation for the proposed NICORE mine discloses that the proposed mining operation or Forest Service alternatives to the proposal will impact 14 species of sensitive plants. The Forest Service's analysis (one year's survey) determined that most of the action alternatives "may contribute to a federal listing or cause a loss of viability" for six species: Arabis macdonaldiana, Calochortus howellii, Microseris howellii, Perideridia erythrorhiza, Streptanthus howellii and Senecio hesperius.
According to a recent conversation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, A. macdonaldiana is federally listed under the Endangered Species Act, throughout its range. The populations recently identified in the Rough and Ready Creek watershed expanded the northern extent of the range of A. macdonaldiana.
The NICORE DEIS not only fails to address the impacts of future mining, but also the impacts of potential smelter construction on the Rough and Ready ACEC. An onsite smelter is one of two options NICORE is considering to process the nickel-laterite ore into stainless steel. The analysis of mining in the DEIS is further flawed because NICORE has refused to submit a mining plan of operations that discloses the full details of the proposed mine and to provide a reclamation plan. NICORE's refusal denies the public the right to know the full extent of the impacts that are proposed on our National Forest and BLM land.
At issue in the NICORE DEIS is the fate of an ancient community of life, forty million years old, and the wild river that flows through it. These are our heritage lands, held in trust for all generations of Americans. The values, beauty and benefits of Rough and Ready Creek should not be destroyed just because the Forest Service feels powerless to protect them in the face of the Mining Law and the demands of NICORE.
Forest Service Address: Mary Zuschlag, District Ranger Illinois Valley Ranger District 26568 Redwood Hwy. Cave Junction, Oregon 97523 General Address for House and Senate Representative_____________ U.S. House of Representatives Washington, D. C. 20515 Senator___________________ U.S. Senate Washington, D.C. 20510The NICORE Draft Environmental Impact Statement is available on the Siskiyou National Forest's website -- http://www.magick.net/~siskiyou. The Forest is also accepting comments on the NICORE DEIS by email -- email@example.com.
For more detailed information, updates, color photos and a SAMPLE LETTER, check out the Siskiyou Regional Education Project's website -- www.siskiyou.org -- and don't forget to order your 10 minute Rough and Ready Creek video by calling (541) 592-4459, or emailing firstname.lastname@example.org. Use the video to help protect and preserve the Rough and Ready Creek watershed and the South Kalmiopsis Roadless Area.
Natural grasslands may be defined as those in which native bunchgrasses predominate, with relatively minor amounts of introduced annual grasses, such as cheatgrass. Included here would be both the "good" (24%) and "excellent" (1%) grasslands as identified in the BLM grassland inventory.
The natural grasslands of the Intermountain West are composed of about a dozen different bunchgrass species. One species, however -- bluebunch wheatgrass ( Agropyron spicatum) -- is by far the most abundant and characteristic bunchgrass. In fact, before the arrival of sheep and cattle, bluebunch wheatgrass (BBWG) was the major plant species of the Intermountain West. On the Columbia Plateau, this species was the dominant plant, producing more herbage than all the other associated species combined.
The second most common bunchgrass of the natural grasslands is Idaho fescue. Among the less abundant bunchgrasses are Junegrass, Sandberg's bluegrass, Cusick's bluegrass, squirreltail, and several species of needlegrass.
Mixed with the bunchgrasses, natural grasslands may contain a variety of other native plants. In the eastern Columbia Gorge, for example, this may include natives such as balsamroot, lupine, milk-vetch, lomatium, and others.
Natural grasslands in arid and semi-arid regions normally possess what is called a cryptobiotic crust, i.e., a layer of mosses, lichens, and micro-organisms covering most of the ground area between the bunchgrasses. The crust protects the soil from wind and water erosion, retains soil moisture, conserves nutrients, fixes atmospheric nitrogen into chemical forms useful to plants, and resists invasion of the grassland by introduced weeds. This crust is readily destroyed by trampling hooves.
Our native bunchgrasses are much more desirable than the introduced annual grasses. They show greater resistance to noxious weed invasion, soil erosion and wildfire. They provide better wildlife and rare plant habitat, and are definitely more handsome than the introduced annuals (e.g., cheatgrass, ripgut, or medusahead), which eventually replace bunchgrasses on lands subjected to livestock grazing.
(I) Greater Resistance to Weeds -- Grasslands composed of perennial grasses and forbs resist invasion by weeds, including annual introduced grasses such as cheatgrass and medusahead, and noxious weeds like knapweed and yellow starthistle.
Squirreltail (Sitanion hystrix) is possibly unique among native bunchgrasses in that it can invade cheatgrass or medusahead stands, largely displacing these weeds over a period of decades.
(II) Greater Resistance to Soil Erosion -- The permanent root systems of bunchgrasses anchor the soil , making them unlikely to move with the wind and water. In contrast, the root system of cheatgrass dies and disintegrates with the plant in early summer, leaving leaving no anchor for the soil. The microrelief caused by bunchgrasses serves as a barrier to surface runoff and sediment transport by causing surface runoff to move in a slower, more tortuous path. Bunchgrass-covered slopes have higher water infiltration rates and far lower soil erosion rates than comparable slopes covered by sodgrass, bare ground, or flimsy annuals like cheatgrass. A decline in bunchgrasses, regardless of cause, results in less water entering the soil and greater soil loss.
(III) Lower Fire Hazard/Higher Fire Survival -- Bunchgrasses are well-spaced and retain some green herbage until late summer. In contrast, cheatgrass stands are usually quite dense, and dry enough to burn rapidly land hot, even in late spring. As a result, the hazard of wildfire on natural grasslands is far lower than on lands covered by annual grasses such as cheatgrass. In fact, a cheatgrass range was estimated to be 500 times more likely to burn than a non-cheatgrass range. Furthermore, the native bunchgrasses largely recover from wildfires, which leaves the root systems and crowns intact. In one study, 100% of BBWG survived wildfire and recovered original vigor within three years. Summer wildfires reduce annual grassland to bare ground, highly susceptible to wind and water erosion.
(IV) Superior Wildlife Habitat -- According to BLM biologists, bunchgrass communities are optimal habitat for antelope and bighorn sheep, and good habitat for mule deer. Bunchgrasses also serve as habitat for for various types of rodents, which in turn maintain the populations of hawks and owls, snakes, weasels, coyotes, etc.
Certain songbirds found in the grasslands of the eastern Columbia Gorge are obligate ground-nesters, including the darkeyed junco, horned lark, and western meadowlark. For these and other birds, such as the mourning dove, vesper sparrow, larkspur and sage grouse bunchgrasses offer excellent protective cover for nesting, rearing, and escape, and the material from which to build substantial nests. Unlike cheatgrass, bunchgrasses retain leaves through the winter and resist flattening by snow.
(V) Superior Habitat for Rare Plants -- Natural grasslands often harbor native plants which are listed as sensitive, threatened or endangered. Seedlings of some rare plants (e.g. Stephanomeria malheurensis) compete poorly with cheatgrass seedlings, so that annual grasslands are not suitable habitat for these species.
The livestock grazing which destroys native bunchgrasses also destroys many listed plants. So the best populations of rare plants are often found in natural grasslands, where there is no livestock grazing and trampling. Examples in the Columbia Gorge include Meconella oregana, Penstemon deustus, Astragalus hoodianus, and Lupinus latifolius var. thompsonianus. Protection of the remaining "good" and "excellent" grasslands protects these special plants as well.
(VI) Higher Esthetic Quality -- Individual bunchgrasses retain much of their characteristic form throughout the year. BBWG is especially striking, often over three feet high and 1.5 feet across at the base. In the bunchgrass communities, the sturdy bunches are more or less evenly spaced, producing a textured appearance which is noticeable even at a distance. Also, as a rule, bunchgrass communities -- natural grasslands -- contain colorful native wildflowers which are less abundant in degraded grasslands.
By contrast, a stand of cheatgrass or other annual is rather featureless. Cheatgrass is a delicate plant which, at maturity, can range in height from one inch to about 20 inches. Dense stands clothe the hills in green for about three months each spring, but for the rest of the year it is just dead grass.
(VII) Greater Historical/Cultural Significance -- One of the reasons that we value the remaining old-growth forests is because they represent a living connection with the past. In the same way, we value the remaining natural grasslands as a living connection with the thousands of years of human and prehuman history preceding the arrival of domestic livestock. We are fortunate to have such splendid native bunchgrasses. As an essential part of our natural heritage, they should be cherished and protected.
Menke summarizes most of the benefits of perennial grasses: " ... they have greater capacity to stabilize surface and sub-soils. Once established, they hold nutrients more tightly and recycle them more efficiently than annuals; they are less flammable than alien annuals, and they help to build soil organic matter, thereby increasing site fertility and sustained productivity. Additionally, they present a more aesthetically pleasing textured landscape appearance and increase the biodiversity of the flora and associated fauna."
For references see below
Dear Bulletin Readers: The following advertisement recently appeared in a prominent magazine. "EXQUISITE RAIN FOREST LOTS AWAIT YOUR JUNGLE DREAM HOME." Speechless in Portland
Oregon's Rare Wildflower Poster depicts Punchbowl Falls and three of the Columbia River Gorge's endemic wildflowers. Text on the back describes the natural history of the Gorge and the mission of the NPSO. Available from Stu Garrett. Individuals may order posters at $12 each, plus $3 per order for shipping. Posters are mailed in tubes. Chapter treasurers may contact Stu, for wholesale prices to chapters.
NPSO Window Stickers are decals with NPSO's trillium logo in green over an opaque white background, for use inside car windows. Available from Stu Garrett, $1, minimum order five.
NPSO T-Shirts are available in various colors and designs, and are sold through NPSO chapters.
NPSO's Original Wildflower Poster depicts 13 Oregon wildflowers in a striking artist's rendition. Soon to be a collector's item. Available from Stephanie Schulz, 84603 Bristow Rd., Pleasant Hill, OR 97455, $5 each,. plus $3 per order for shipping. Posters are mailed in tubes.
NPSO Membership Directory lists names, addresses and phone numbers of members (April, 1997). Available from Jan Dobak, 2584 Savier St., Portland, OR 97210-2412. $2 each.
Conservation and Management of Native Plants and Fungi: Proceedings of an Oregon Conference on the Conservation and Management of Native Vascular Plants, Bryophytes, and Fungi. Edited by Thomas N. Kaye, Aaron Liston, Rhoda M. Love, Daniel L. Luoma, Robert J. Meinke, and Mark V. Wilson, with a foreword by Reed F. Noss. Available from NPSO Conference Proceedings, 804 Jefferson Ave., La Grande, OR 97850. $20, plus $5 for shipping for the first copy, $2.50 for shipping for each additional copy.
© Copyright 1998 Native Plant Society of Oregon, All Rights Reserved
Last Modified August 3, 1998