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Jan. .31, Sat. State Board Meeting: 10 A.M. - 4 P.M. Clark Public Utilities Building, 1200 Fort Vancouver Way, Vancouver, Washington. Directions: About one mi. from I-5 bridge between Vancouver and Portland. Take Mill Plain exit off I-5, go east one block on Mill Plain, turn right on Fort Vancouver Way to building entrance. Public Meeting room is at south end of building.
May 8 - 10 Annual Meeting: Mosier, Oregon, the heart of the Columbia River Gorge! Registration information will appear in the March Bulletin.
Jan. 5, Mon. Meeting: 7 P.M. Small Business Development Center, SE 1st & Dorian, Pendleton. Dessert potluck, with flower slide show starting with Ruth Rouse's "Samplings." Bring goodies, or just come; there will be plenty, with hot cider as well.
Feb. 2, Mon. Meeting: 7 P.M. Small Business Development Center, SE 1st & Dorian, Pendleton. Jean Wood will present "Wildflowers of Colville National Forest" (ne Washington).
Jan. 12, Mon. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Room 2087 Cordley Hall, OSU campus. Cindy McCain, ecologist for the Siuslaw and Willamette National Forests, will present a program on the Coast Range plant communities.
Jan. 24, Sat. Field Trip: Winter Twig Walk, co-sponsored by Mt. Pisgah Arboretum and NPSO. Fees will be used to support MPA's Education Program. Judith Manning of MPA's Board of Directors will take us on a 2 hour walk and help us identify trees using only their twigs. Meet: Mt. Pisgah Arboretum Visitor Center, 10 A.M. Bring hand lens, ruler and pocket knife (if possible) and $3 ($2 for Arboretum members). You'll receive a copy of Dr. Rhoda Love's Key to Winter Twigs of Deciduous Trees and Shrubs at Mt. Pisgah Arboretum (revised Oct. Ś97).
Jan. 26, Mon. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Room 109, main campus, Lane Community College, Eugene. Free-lance writer Christine Colasurdo of San Francisco will give a slide-illustrated talk titled "Sprouting in the Shadow of the Volcano: The Flora of Mount St. Helens." Christine, who wrote the biography of Erna Gunther for the NW Plant Hunters book, will also read from her new book, "Return to Spirit Lake" Journey Through a Lost Landscape," which is being published by Sasquatch Books of Seattle. Directions: From 30th Ave., turn south on Eldon-Schafer Drive, go past Oak Hill School and park in LCC's south parking lot, east end. Walk downstairs to Science Building. Entrance to room 109 on south side of building.
Feb. 15, Sun. Field Trip: Mosses and liverworts of Wolf Creek. Dr. David Wagner, local expert on bryophytes, will take us to sites where he has been conducting inventories and exploring in the Wolf Creek drainage southwest of Eugene. Meet: 9 A.M., S. Eugene H.S. parking lot (19th and Patterson). Bring lots of warm clothes, a hand lens and lunch. For more information, call Dave.
Feb. 23, Mon. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Room 109, Science Building, main campus, LCC, Eugene. Nan Vance, plant ecologist, USDA Forest Service, Pacific NW Research Station, will talk about "Ethnobotany, Natural Products Chemistry and Plant Conservation." Nan will discuss the natural history, chemistry and population ranges of the Yew (Taxus) and other prized medicinal plants and their conservation. See Jan. meeting for directions.
Feb. 28, Sat. Field Trip: Biennial Review of Lane County Rare Plant List, 10 A.M. - 3 P.M., room 109, Science Building, main campus, LCC, Eugene. Call Bruce Newhouse, or Charlene Simpson, if interested. See Jan. mtng. for directions.
March 30, Mon. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Room 109, main campus, LCC, Eugene. Ed Alverson, Nature Conservancy botanist at Willow Creek and featured in Oregon Field Guide, will tell us the "Ecological History of the Willamette Valley." He'll tell us about the history and fate of the wet prairie an other original habitats, and apply these ideas to conservation and restoration plans. See Jan. mtng. for directions. NOTE: CHANGE FROM 4TH TO 5TH MONDAY (this month only).
Ed will also lead a prairie field trip at Willow Creek, possibly in June. Details later.
Jan. 27, Tues. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Central Oregon Environmental Center, 16 NW Kansas, Bend. Birds and Botany in the Aleutians. Mary Wilson toured the length of the Aleutian chain this summer, and and will share with us her spectacular stories and slides.
Feb. 24, Tues. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Central Oregon Environmental Center, 16 NW Kansas, Bend. Ancient Junipers in Central Oregon. Dr. Rick Miller, an OSU professor and juniper researcher will tell us about his efforts to develop a tree ring dating for central Oregon and about an 1800-year old juniper he has studied.
March 24, Tues. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Central Oregon Environmental Center, 16 NW Kansas, Bend. Man and Nature in West Africa. Our own Stu Garrett will show slides of his photo safari to the Serengeti plains and northern Tanzania and tell of his adventures among the Masai and Meru tribesmen.
Jan. 13, Tues. Meeting: 7 - 9 P.M. Room 202, OIT campus. Faith Wilkins, a botanist, will give a program on the medicinal native plants of the Klamath Basin. For more information, call Susan Erwin.
Jan. 7, Wed. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Mosier School. Jerry Igo will give a presentation on the botanical collections and travels of Lewis and Clark.
Feb. 4, Wed. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Mosier School. Peter Zika presents "Who eats the fruits of the Amazon," a discussion of Amazonian natural history.
Jan. 13, Tues. Meeting: 7 P.M. Room 355, First United Methodist Church, 1838 Jefferson St., Portland. Chapter member Mike McKeag abandoned his former position as the chapter's field trip coordinator and ran off to Alaska. He returned a few months later, after putting over 10,000 miles on his Land Rover and exploring most parts of Alaska and the Yukon accessible by road. He took thousands of photographs in the process, but promised to share only a few with us. Some might have something to do with native plants, but he warns us his interests are wide and undisciplined.
Officers: Chapter officers will be elected at the January meeting. For information, call Shane Latimer.
Jan. 15, Thurs. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Room 171, Science Building, SOU, Ashland. Mike and Jannice Cutler (botanists, BLM Klamath Falls Resource Area) and David Lebo (ecologist, Winema NF and BLM Klamath Falls Resource Area) will give a slide presentation, "More than just trees: Monitoring for soil disturbance and lowlife in the forest -- lichens, bryophytes and fungi," which will include a discussion of using lichens to monitor air pollution.
For information on South Coast Chapter, contact Bruce Rittenhouse.
Jan. 8, Thurs. Meeting: 7 P.M. Room 3110 Douglas County Courthouse, Roseburg. Lisa Wolf, a botanist with the U.S.F.S., will present a program on toxic plants, grazing and historical management.
Jan. 10, Sat. Field Trip: Reconnaissance and planning trip to the Bonesteele Park natural area. Meet: South Salem K-Mart parking lot, 9:30 A.M. (parking severely limited at site to be visited) For more information, call Wilbur Bluhm.
Jan. 12, Mon. Meeting: 7 P.M. Room 225, United Methodist Church, 600 State St. NE, Salem. Larry Scofield will present a program on the weeds of Oregon and the Northwest and their effects on the ecosystem.
Jan. 21, Wed. Meeting: 7 P.M. Forest and Range Laboratory, C Ave. & Gekeler Lane, La Grande. Botanist, Janet Ebaugh, will present a slide show on the plants of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation. This unique area of the Columbia Basin experienced "restoration by default" as areas of it have had no human impact since the early 1940's. Current restoration projects will also be included in the presentation. Chapter elections will follow; be there or be elected. Contact Dick Kenton.
IMPORTANT NOTE TO FIELD TRIP PARTICIPANTSField trips take place rain or shine, so proper dress and footwear are essential. Trips may be strenuous and/or hazardous. Participation is at your own risk. Please contact the trip leader or chapter representative about difficulty, distance, and terrain to be expected on field trips. Bring water and lunch. All NPSO field trips are open to the public at no charge (other than contribution to carpool driver) and newcomers 'and visitors are always welcome.
NOTICE TO FIELD TRIP CHAIRS AND LEADERSThe Forest Service and other agencies have set policies limiting group size in many wilderness areas to 12. The reason is to limit human impacts on these fragile areas. Each group using wilderness areas should be no larger than 12.
POSTAL NOTICEBulletin of the Native Plant Society of Oregon; John Robotham, Editor; 117 NW Trinity P1. #28, Portland, OR 97209.
Published monthly. Subscription price $18/year. ISSN 0884-599. Date and issue number on page 1.
Opinions expressed in this publication are those of the authors of the articles. They do not represent the opinions of the Native Plant Society of Oregon, unless so stated.
Guidelines for Contributors to the BulletinThe NPSO Bulletin is published monthly as a service to members and the public.
Joining from 7/10/97 to 12/8/97
Michael and Jannice Cutler
Central Cascades Alliance
Larry R. Adams
Donna and Richard Rawson
Joseph W. Blevins
The Nominating Committee offers the following list of candidates for state offices. The names of additional nominees, submitted by any group of five or more dues-paying members, will be printed in the Bulletin's February issue. Timing will be tight for additions, as the February deadline is January 10. Election ballots will be included in the March Bulletin.
Michael Fahey, incumbent, is a member of the Portland Chapter. He has been a member of the Native Plant Society of Oregon (NPSO) since 1981.He has been president, field trip chair and program chair of the Portland Chapter. His interests are photographing and growing native plants and their seeds. He provided a fascinating display of his work for an earlier annual meeting. The "President's Message" in the November, 1997 Bulletin gives insight into Michael's vision of NPSO's future.
Michael McKeag, incumbent, is a member of the Portland Chapter. His involvement with NPSO grew out of his interest in gardening with native plants. After a few field trips and a season as field trip coordinator for the Portland Chapter, he was hooked. Now his garden languishes while Michael is off in the wilds studying plants in their native habitat Michael is serving on President Fahey's planning committee for NPSO's future. He hopes to participate in a NPSO galvanized with a sense of purpose that inspires others to join in. He would like to see NPSO become irresistible.
Heather Laub, incumbent, is a member of the Mid-Columbia Chapter, a graduate of the U. of Arizona with a degree in evolutionary biology and ecology, and currently a botanist for the Forest Service. Since becoming secretary in 1996, she has reduced Board minute mailing costs by 75%..
Jean France, incumbent, is a member of the Portland Chapter. She served as treasurer for her chapter before her stint as state treasurer. She was elected state treasurer at a difficult time of changing tax brackets and regulations and she managed to bring us up to speed, no small task. She believes deeply in the NPSO mission to educate the public relating to the conservation and study of native vegetation, a priceless treasure for Oregon and ultimately all ecosystems. She very much enjoys botanizing on the many NPSO outings published in the monthly NPSO Bulletin.
DIRECTORS AT LARGE
Kathleen Cheap, a member of the Blue Mountain Chapter, is refuge manager of Umatilla National Wildlife Refuge on the Columbia River in eastern Oregon and Washington. Kathleen holds a B.S. in Biology and an M.S. in Wildlife Sciences. On the Refuge, she is working on several projects to restore and protect native shrub steppe habitat, riparian woodlands and wetlands. Her career has taken her to several areas of the country where she has worked on native plant community research and management in a variety of ecosystems. Her primary interests are in woodlands and grasslands and the interaction of plants and animals in those systems. She lives along the shores of the Columbia with her husband Mike (a fisheries biologist), a Labrador retriever, two cats and whatever refuge wildlife wanders through the yard on the way to the vegetable garden.
Ben Fawver, a member of both the Siskiyou and South Coast chapters, has been a resident of the Coos Bay area since 1963. He has been a college teacher since 1949. He taught graduate courses in ornithology, plant ecology and taxonomy at Mankato State University in southern Minnesota. In the Smoky Mountains National Park in the southern Appalachians he studied bird population in relation to vegetation. In the Coos Bay area, he taught at Southwestern Oregon Community College until his retirement in 1985.
Steven Jessup, Siskiyou Chapter, is Assistant Professor of Botany and Environmental Education in the Biology Department of Southern Oregon University, Ashland. He has had a deep interest in natural history from an early age. His studies, experiences and travels include: Maryland, teen years in the Catoctin Mountains, B.S. in botany at University of Maryland, ecological study of nanoplankton in the Chesapeake Bay area; Michigan, The Nature Conservancy, Department of Natural Resources, Ph.D. dissertation; California, Draba research, teaching plant systematics, alpine flora, plants and fungi. At Ashland he will continue research, teach, advise students in a Masters program and direct the SOU Herbarium.
Veva Stansell, Chair Siskiyou and South Coast Chapters Michael Igo, Mid-Columbia Chapter Shane Latimer, Portland Chapter Eugene Yates, High Desert Chapter
Australia is an unforgettable experience for any naturalist, serious scientist or tourist. There is a great diversity of plants and animals to be found in Australia -- from the lush rain forests in Queensland on the eastern coast, to the harsh, arid landscape of the "red interior territory" around Alice Springs, to the high alpine environment on Mount Kosciusko. In a land of extremes, one can see bizarre animals like the echidna, the platypus, the kangaroo, the koala bear, and the wombat. It was in 1770 that Captain James Cook ventured to the east coast of Australia with naturalist Sir Joseph Banks and botanist Dr. Solander. Banks was impressed by the flora and made a large collection of pressed specimens. Sir Joseph Banks is often called the "Father of Australian botany." The flora of Australia is dominated by the genus Eucalyptus (family Myrtaceae) which has adapted to different types of habitats throughout the country. More than 500 species and subspecies are now recognized, all indigenous to Australia except a few which are found in islands to the north. The plasticity of the genus can be seen in comparing the mountain ash (Eucalyptus regnans), the tallest hardwood in the world, to the shrubby snow gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora ssp. niphophila) of the subalpine woodlands. To the naturalist and botanist the questions arise as to how there is such a great diversity within the Eucalyptus genus and how all those species originated.
Australia is an old continent with ancient, weathered landscapes. Some rocks date back as far as 3,000 million years and cynobacterial stromatolites, marine life forms with a 3,500 million year fossil history, still thrive in Shark's Bay on the west coast of Australia. It was about 50 million years ago when Australia broke away from a large continent known as Gondwanaland, which included Africa, South America and India. The land, the animals and the plants of Australia developed in isolation once Gondwanaland drifted away and became a separate continent. The isolation of Australia accounts for the unusual evolution of plants and animals. The first detailed descriptions were made by Sir Joseph Banks. Banks kept detailed records, voucher specimens and drawings of his exciting finds. And it was Banks who paid the expenses of Dr. Solander and the four artists on the voyage of the Endeavor. The genus Banksia was named after him. They belong to the family Proteaceae, a large family of plants known from the southern hemisphere. All the 75 species except one are found in Australia. They are woody plants, commonly known as native honeysuckle due to the attraction of of the flowers to nectar-feeding birds. They have a characteristic woody fruiting cone which contains flat, winged fruits. In natural conditions the seeds remain enclosed for many years until a bush fire releases them for the next generation. Banksia grandis (bull banksia) grows to ten meters as a tree, and has a hard seed pod which is crafted into many items such as coasters, handles and containers.
The native flora and fauna of Australia have been drastically changed since the coming of the Europeans about 200 years ago. The distribution and abundance of these plants and animals have been altered through the practices of farming and grazing, clearing of forests, planting of exotic species, mining, changed fire patterns and urbanization. The landscape of the countryside is dotted with cattle, sheep and horse farms. The land is fragile, with the only large grazers being the kangaroos with soft padded feet which tread gently. Introduced ungulates, such as cows, horses and sheep, all have sharp hooves that dig into the fragile soils and scar the land. Introduction of the fox and rabbit has played havoc with the native ecosystems. The arid environment of inland Australia is difficult for native species because of the periodic droughts which limit food availability and suitable habitat. The arrival of exotic grazing animals has disturbed the delicate balance in these arid environments. Pressures from grazing, introduced predators and a change in fire regime have increased the local extinction of many species. The Australian temperate grassland is the most endangered and depleted vegetation type in Australia. Less than one per cent of the original cover remains. On the coast in Queensland, the tropical forests are being cleared for acres and acres of sugar cane, thus depleting vital habitat for the endangered cassowary birds and countless other endemic animals and plants.
About 300 Australian vertebrate species are considered endangered. Twenty species and one subspecies of mammals and 10 species and 11 subspecies of of birds have become extinct since European settlement in 1788. Approximately 97 Australian plant species have become extinct in the last 200 years, which is 2.9% of the flora. There are currently 3,329 rare and threatened plant species (17% of the flora) in Australia. Of all the rare and endangered plant species, 43% are in western Australia, where there is extensive agriculture and logging. Land use practices appear to be responsible for many losses of species. Many of the rare species are not under direct or immediate threat because of because of localized distributions. Yet some once common plants are now threatened because of habitat loss, such as native grasslands. Of great concern is the fact that a large percentage of the native plant species that are rare are endemic to Australia.
After European settlement many weeds were introduced and now approximately 11% of the vascular plants in Australia are exotics. Most introduced species are found in disturbed habitats. These alien plants are represented by 116 plant families, with the Asteraceae and Poaceae having the greatest numbers. It is very strange to see familiar weeds on the roadsides or in the gardens, weeds that one might see on the roadside in Oregon. The dry roadside weeds include mullein, thistles, exotic grasses, toadflax, bachelor buttons, blackberries and Erechtites. The overgrazed pastures have large patches of tansy ragwort and in riparian habitats purple loosestrife is beginning to grab a roothold. Purple loosestrife has not been identified as a serious weed problem, yet we found it in almost every riparian habitat we visited in New South Wales.
The introduction of European agricultural practices in Australia has been very hard on the flora and fauna of the land. Yet there are areas that are being protected and areas that are being restored. A number of large tracts of unique habitats have been set aside as World Heritage Areas. (WHA) Portions of the north Queensland rain forest are now being protected as part of the Wet Tropics WHA. This rain forest and other protected parks contain the highest diversity of local endemic species in the world. Australia has a total of 12 World Heritage sites, including the Great Barrier Reef that is now spared the threat of oil drilling. There are recent discoveries in Australia that illustrate the need to protect many unique natural areas. In late 1994, in Wollemi National Park, a park Ranger went down a 1,970-foot gorge and discovered a living tree relic of another era; the Wollemia pine (Wollemia nobilis) of the Araucariaceae family) is a species between 160 and 170 million years old. The plant was known from fossils dating to a time when the continent was covered with the wet forests of Gondwana. This rare "pine" was discovered not two hours drive from downtown Sydney. In the same year, an ancient tree was found in northwest Tasmania; this 10,500 year old Huon pine, also called Macquarie pine (Dacrydium franklinii of the Podocarpaceae family), is the world's oldest known living organism. Huon pines are found only along Tasmanian river systems, from 500 to 2,000 feet in elevation.
The world's first green political party, the United Tasmania Group, was formed in 1972 in Tasmania and has continued to work on protecting the environment. Tasmania has the cleanest water and air in the inhabited world. It has the highest proportion of national parks, 25% of the total land area. All of Australia's 12 WHA are of natural importance to the world. By protecting and conserving these WHA sites, these special areas are made available for research and for the public to visit. It is well worth the long trip if you should be given the opportunity to travel Down Under. You will never forget the experience. Just a few of the many things I miss are the banksias, eucalyptus, kangaroo grass (Themeda triandra), parrots and cockatoos, kangaroos and the kookaburras laughing at us from the old gum tree.
Reference: Beattie, A., Auld, B., Greenslade, P., Harrington, G., Majer, J., Morton, S., Recher, H. and Westoby, M. 1992. "Changes in Australian terrestrial biodiversity since European settlement and in the future." In: Australia's Renewable Resources Sustainability and Global Change. Ed. R.M. Gifford & M.M. Barson. Bureau of Rural Resources. Proceedings. No 14: 189-202. CSIRO Plant Industry, Canberra.
Esther Gruber McEvoy
The following is the last in a series of three articles in which NPSO/ODA interns discuss their activities during the 1997 field season. Interns were selected from a pool of applicants and worked with scientists from the Oregon Department of Agriculture/OSU Plant Conservation Biology Program to carry out research related to threatened and endangered species in Oregon. Project locations ranged from coastal beaches to serpentines of southwestern Oregon to the eastside's high desert. Interns were jointly funded by NPSO, state and federal dollars and plan to use their experiences to further their careers in botany and biology. Thanks again to NPSO for contributing to botanical education and work experience.
Plant Conservation Biology Program
Oregon Department of Agriculture
My NPSO/ODA internship this summer involved assisting the Plant Conservation Biology Program with population monitoring of threatened and endangered plants on public lands. Cost-share projects allow the program to collect information on the plants, their ecology and population dynamics. State botanists also have the opportunity to provide scientific advice to government agencies to inform their conservation and management decisions. I learned a great deal, being involved in this work, but what I enjoyed the most was the variety of plants and habitats we visited. My knowledge of the natural history of Oregon and the various threats against our natural areas was greatly expanded. At the risk of rambling, I would like to give you an idea of the breadth and diversity of our excursions.
In eastern Oregon we hiked the sage-covered, rolling hills near Lookout Mountain in Baker County to visit populations of Haplopappus radiatus. This robust composite must be tasty. Not only do cattle and grasshoppers munch on this plant, but the flowering heads are predated by weevils, moths and midges. On endemic, chalky soils near John Day we worked with Lupinus cusickii. This cute little pea is having trouble with recreational vehicles, among other things. Beautiful sites in and near a relic cinder cone in the White River Valley took us to another legume, Astragalus tyghensis. A cow had unfortunately passed away not 15 meters from a plot, a few months before. The smell was almost as offensive as other evidence of cattle, such as cow pies and hoof marks dotting many of the eastern Oregon study sites. But a real wildlife sighting later in the week made up for this when we all saw a cougar in the wild for the first time, scrambling up the majestic walls of the White River canyon and stopping briefly to stare us down.
Lomatium bradshawii and Horkelia congesta ssp. congesta took us to various wetland prairies in Lane and Benton counties. Many other rare plants call this very endangered habitat home, as evidenced by the by the large number of plot markers we carefully avoided at one preserve. To avoid future clutter, one of the new monitoring grids was set up to include not only our target species, Horkelia congesta ssp. congesta, but also populations of two other rare plants, Erigeron decumbens var. decumbens and and Aster curtus, for future monitoring.
Southern Oregon was probably my favorite on the tour, and we had quite a few stops there. In rocky forests west of the Rogue River, we worked with a strikingly beautiful and tall four-petaled member of the gentian family, Frasera umpquaensis. Serpentine meadows in the Rough and Ready Creek area were the habitat for Lomatium cookii. The diversity of plants in this area is truly amazing. A major threat to this plant became obvious as we walked through an area devastated by mining to reach the largest known population.
I had the opportunity to see the southern populations of Cimicifuga elata, a plant in the Ranunculaceae that I had previously worked with in the forests here in the Willamette Valley. Plants and populations in the southern portion of this species' range differ substantially from those further north. The southern populations are larger and the plants grow much taller and with more flowering stems. Whether this is due to environmental or genetic reasons is as yet unanswered.
We spent quite a bit of time on the southern coast, working with Abronia umbellata ssp. breviflora. This reintroduction project was unique on the agenda because it involved monitoring greenhouse-grown transplants, as well as checking for plants at sights where Tom Kaye, my supervisor, had scattered thousands of seeds in previous years. During our beach walks, we took the opportunity to make some observations about two of this rare plants non-native competitors on the beach, Cakile maritima and C. edentula. Both were introduced on the Pacific coast in California in the nineteenth century. Cakile edentula was introduced first and spread north to British Columbia. Cakile maritima, introduced later, seems to be replacing C. edentula in its spread north. Although introduced decades ago, their relative abundance on beaches from southern Oregon north are not at equilibrium, and they represent an interesting example of ecological dynamics.
This internship was a wonderful opportunity to learn about the many factors that affect the biology and conservation of Oregon's rare plants. A fortunate side effect of working with the Plant Conservation Biology Program was that it was like a natural history tour of the many habitats in our state. It reaffirmed my belief that it is very exciting to be a botanist in Oregon.
Many thanks to the NPSO, Tom Kaye, and Bob Meinke for giving me the opportunity to learn so much and to rediscover the joys of being a botanist in Oregon. I feel it was rare and lucky to have had a team that was able to work and have fun together so well.Thanks to Tom, Sahni Burkhart, Anne Turner, Carla Cole, and Elena Kelly for being great scientists and great people. I would also like to thank Rhoda Love for her knowledge and enthusiasm which inspired me to be a botanist in Oregon in the first place.
The Siskiyou Field Institute (SFI) will offer science-based field courses the week of June 12-19, 1988. SFI will bring together scientists, educators, students and community members, as well as people from throughout the country interested in studying the Klamath-Siskiyou region. Courses offered this year include: "Lichens of the Klamath Mountains," with Dr. Steve Jessup (SOU); "Geo-Botany of the Siskiyous," by Dr. Bob Coleman (Stanford) and Dr. Art Kruckeberg (UW); and "Nature Writing in the Siskiyous" with David Rains Wallace, author of the Klamath Knot. SFI is coordinate by the Siskiyou Regional Education Project and cosponsored by NPSO, Southern Oregon U. Biology Dept., and Oregon Caves National Monument. Look for more details in next month's Bulletin. For more information about courses, contact: Jennifer Beigel or Erik Jules at SREP, P.O. Box 220, Cave Junction, OR 97523; or email email@example.com.
I would like to introduce members of the NPSO to a little-known, yet important, regional resource for information on northeastern Oregon plants. Eastern Oregon University's herbarium is located in room 306C, Badgley Hall, on the campus in La Grande, and is open to the public during normal working hours, excluding university holidays. We have been listed in the most recent edition of Index Herbarium, with the acronym EOSC.
Herbaria can be used for a variety of purposes. Plant taxonomy or systematics researchers use herbaria extensively for the examination of plant characteristics, variability and distribution. Individuals wishing to know possible locations for finding specific plants may consult specimens for location data. Historical ranges of plants can be determined from specimen data. Another common use of the herbarium is for verification of plant identifications. As herbarium specimen label data becomes available in computerized data base format, it also becomes possible to generate species lists for specific locations or plant groups.
Eastern's collection currently contains approximately 7,000 specimens of vascular plants, most collected in northeastern Oregon. The collection's early foundation was based on U.S.D.A. Forest Service specimens. Many of these were collected early in the twentieth century and have significant historical value. Since then, the herbarium has grown through the incorporation of several decades of Eastern's student collections.
Recognizing the historic significance of the collection, we are beginning to create a computerized database of specimen data. This may take a few years to complete, but all of the label data eventually will be available to everyone via the internet.
I invite botanists who find themselves in La Grande to visit the herbarium. If you have expertise with specific plant groups, we welcome your annotations on our specimens. We welcome donations of northeastern Oregon plant specimens and can provide a repository for research vouchers of work done in this area. Index Herbarium listings for Eastern and other U.S. herbaria are on the Internet at "http://www.nybg.org." EOU's homepage is at "http://www.eou.edu." If you have questions or want to use the collection, contact: Dr. Karen Antell, EOU, 1410 L Ave., La Grande, OR 97850. e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Karen Antell, William Cusick Chapter
Before cattle and sheep were brought to the Intermountain West, the hills and plains between the Cascades and the Rocky Mountains were covered with millions of acres of native bunchgrasses, sturdy long-lived perennials. Today, most of the bunchgrasses are gone, largely because of livestock grazing. As you drive through the east end of the Columbia Gorge, or across the Snake River plains, or the vast steppes of southeastern Oregon, you see mile upon mile of wispy annual grasses like cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), ripgut (Bromus rigidus) and medusahead (Taeniatherum), all introduced from Eurasia.
After 150 years of livestock grazing, what remains of the native bunchgrasses is found only in places inaccessible to livestock or in areas remote from natural or manmade water sources. Native bunchgrass stands in "excellent" (near natural) condition now represent less than one percent of the 14 million acres of BLM (Bureau of Land Management) lands in eastern Oregon. Another 24 percent of BLM rangelands in Oregon are rated "good," i.e., partially degraded from the natural condition.
To complicate matters, conversion of annual (cheatgrass) grasslands back to native perennial grasslands occurs only slowly, if at all, even in the total absence of grazing. This is because seedlings of cheatgrass and other annuals fiercely outcompete bunchgrass seedlings for the available water, and the latter usually perish.
So, the natural grasslands we have now are all we can expect to have for the foreseeable future. To prevent degradation of the natural grasslands that remain, the BLM grasslands in "good" and "excellent" condition should be protected from livestock grazing. In support of this conclusion, it is important to establish that:
(a) Native perennial bunchgrasses are more desirable in all respects than introduced annual grasses and thus deserve protection, and that:In the coming issues of the NPSO Bulletin, we will present evidence that both of these statements are correct.
(b) Livestock grazing at any intensity and in any season of the year is harmful to the native bunchgrasses of the Intermountain West.
Washington Watchable Wildflowers: A Columbia Basin Guide is a colorful new booklet featuring central Washington wildflowers. This Bureau of Land Management publication is designed for the casual traveler as well as for the seasoned botanist. The 34 full-color pages present an overview of the geology and natural history of the Columbia Basin region. Ten locations on BLM land are highlighted and they represent the diversity of environments found throughout the Columbia Basin.
Each site description features local natural history, driving directions, a map and color photos. A section called "Plants and People" details Native American and early settler's use of plants. For each site, there is plant species checklist in a pocket at the back of the booklet. NPSO's sibling society, the Washington Native Plant Society, contributed to the cost of production and some WNPS members helped produce it; one of them, Pamela Camp, had the idea and ran with it, and another, John Marshall, took the pictures.
This useful and attractive booklet can be found in bookstores and museums in Portland and in the Columbia Gorge, or it can be ordered from: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Wenatchee Resource Area, 915 Walla Walla, Wenatchee, Washington 98801-1521. Telephone: 509-665-2100, FAX: 509-665-2121. The price is four dollars.
Since the publication of "An Educator's Guide to ŚCelebrating Wildflowers'" by the North Cascades Institute, the requests for coloring page printmaster packets have been overwhelming. Because the Umatilla National Forest's Xerox copier is "on its last legs," we have made arrangements with National NatureWatch Coordinator Kimberly Anderson to fill hardcopy orders from her office in Lakewood, Colorado. Now, thanks to the computer expertise of Alan Ager, Forest Planning Analyst, and Robin Straughn, Hydrologic Technician, the 345-illustration coloring page packet is available via Internet. The address is http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/uma. Once the Umatilla National Forest homepage is accessed, click on the "New-Celebrating Wildflowers" line. This hypertext gets you to the "catalog of illustrations." Images can be downloaded singly as either single illustrations and coloring guides or as complete illustration sets (345 images) and complete coloring guide sets (345 conservation messages + coloring guides). The original hard copies have the illustration printed on one side and the coloring guide on the reverse. The Internet files can be pulled into most word processing programs or Paintbrush can be printed directly from the screen.
The coloring page project ("Color Them Forever") was initiated in 1991 by Karl Urban, Forest Botanist on the Umatilla National Forest, in an effort to "share" the spectacular wildflower heritage of the Pacific Northwest with children (and grown-ups too). In 1992, six of the images were printed on Fred Meyer grocery bags in an effort to further an awareness of our wildflower heritage. This project has grown steadily with the addition of selected Californian and Intermountain species in 1993 (forest botanists in California and Nevada sent me slides and/or prints of one or two plants they wanted to use in coloring book projects). It is important to note that all work on the project has been done on donated time and at no expense to the government. It should also be noted that the illustrations are "fun" and are not necessarily or professional artistic quality. I am not an artist and have never had an art course in my life. As a hobby that carries me through the grayest of winters here in Pendleton, I draw my "wildflower friends," ink them, scan them, print them, and donate them to the government so they become public domain. Widespread use and distribution is encouraged! At the outset of the project, I simply wanted an awareness of the wildflower heritage to be accessible to everyone. That dream is a little closer to reality thanks to Alan, Robin, and the new world of high technology. Enjoy! Please remember this resource on the coldest, dreariest of winter days when the kids are confined to the home environment and are in need of a wholesome high-tech pacifier.
Blue Mountain Chapter
Oregon's Rare Wildflower Poster depicts Punchbowl Falls and three of the Columbia River Gorge's endemic wildflowers. Text on the back describes the natural history of the Gorge and the mission of the NPSO. Available from Stu Garrett. Individuals may order posters at $12 each, plus $3 per order for shipping. Posters are mailed in tubes. Chapter treasurers may contact Stu, for wholesale prices to chapters.
NPSO Window Stickers are decals with NPSO's trillium logo in green over an opaque white background, for use inside car windows. Available from Stu Garrett, $1, minimum order five.
NPSO T-Shirts are available in various colors and designs, and are sold through NPSO chapters.
NPSO's Original Wildflower Poster depicts 13 Oregon wildflowers in a striking artist's rendition. Soon to be a collector's item. Available from Stephanie Schulz, 84603 Bristow Rd., Pleasant Hill, OR 97455, $5 each,. plus $3 per order for shipping. Posters are mailed in tubes.
NPSO Membership Directory lists names, addresses and phone numbers of members (April, 1997). Available from Jan Dobak, 2584 Savier St., Portland, OR 97210-2412. $2 each.
Conservation and Management of Native Plants and Fungi: Proceedings of an Oregon Conference on the Conservation and Management of Native Vascular Plants, Bryophytes, and Fungi. Edited by Thomas N. Kaye, Aaron Liston, Rhoda M. Love, Daniel L. Luoma, Robert J. Meinke, and Mark V. Wilson, with a foreword by Reed F. Noss. Available from NPSO Conference Proceedings, 804 Jefferson Ave., La Grande, OR 97850. $20, plus $5 for shipping for the first copy, $2.50 for shipping for each additional copy.
© Copyright 1996 Native Plant Society of Oregon, All Rights Reserved
Last Modified April 6, 1996