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NPSO Logo Bulletin of the Native Plant Society of Oregon

Dedicated to the enjoyment, conservation, and study of Oregon's native vegetation.

March 1996

Volume 29 · Number 3

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In This Issue

State News

Jul. 12-l4Annual Meeting: Work is progressing on planning the annual meeting to be held in the beautiful Wallowa Mountains. Watch for registration form in April's Bulletin.

Apr. 20, Sat. State Board Meeting: 10 A.M. - 4 P.M. Linfield College, McMinnville. See the April Bulletin for more information.

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Chapter News

Blue Mountain

Mar. 4, Mon. Meeting: 7 P.M. Small Business Development Center, SE 1st & Dorian, Pendleton. A presentation on tree death and decay in forest ecosystems by Catherine Park of La Grande.

Apr. 1, Mon. Meeting: 7 P.M. Small Business Development Center, SE 1st & Dorian, Pendleton. Jerry Igo will show his heautiful wildflower videos.


Mar. 11, Mon. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Room 2087, Cordley Hall, OSU campus. Dr. J.C. Miller will talk about "Caterpillars: Host plants, Biodiversity and Photography." For more information contact Esther McEvoy.


Mar. 9, Sat. Field Trip: Lichen identification at Spencer Butte, led by Abbey Rosso. Meet at 9 A.M. at South Eugene H.S. Call Kathy Pendergrass, for more information.

Mar. 25, Mon. Meeting: 7 P.M. at Morse Ranch Park. Directions from downtown Eugene: Take Willamette St. south to Crest Dr. (right through "Y" for Donald, between 32nd and 33rd Aves. E.) Go right (W) on Crest Dr. 4 blocks, turn right into Morse Ranch parking lot. Our special guest from Salem, Wilbur Bluhm, will present an interesting and gorgeous multi-media slide show on "Oregon alpine wildflowers." For more information call Kathy Pendergrass.

Apr. 22, Mon. Meeting: 7 P.M. Morse Ranch Park. (For directions, see above) Cathy Whitlock, a researcher at the U. of O., will fascinate us with her findings on "The development of Pacific Northwest forests since the last ice age." Call Kathy Pendergrass for more information.

May 27, Mon. Meeting: 7 P.M. Morse Ranch Park. (For directions see above) Scott Sundberg, from the OSU Herbarium, will update us on the Oregon Flora project, which is aimed at developing an up-to-date flora on the higher plants of Oregon (a book to replace Peck and Hitchcock et. al.) For more information call Kathy Pendergrass.

High Desert

Mar. 26, Tue. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Central Oregon Environmental Center, 16 NW Kansas, Bend. Staff of the Hart Mountain Antelope Refuge will talk about vegetation management and rare plants in the Refuge. There has been no livestock grazing in the Refuge for five years and native grasses are rebounding! We will plan a spring field trip to the Refuge to see Oregon's high desert at its best.

Apr. 23, Tue. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Central Oregon Environmental Center, 16 NW Kansas, Bend. Dr. Tony Svecar of OSU's Northern Great Basin Experiment Station will talk about his research on the native grasslands of central Oregon. We will also plan a summer field trip to see the projects.


Mar. 6 Wed. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Mosier School. Lance Holmberg, botanist for the Bear Springs Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest, will give a presentation on mosses.

North Coast

Meeting: Call Christine Stanley for information.


Mar. 12, Tue. Meeting: 7 P.M. First Methodist Church, 1838 SW Jefferson, Portland. Dick Dewey of Portland State University will talk on Palau's mangroves and forests and the people who depend on them.

Mar. 23, Sat. Field Trip: Tom McCall Preserve. Explore oak savanna, biscuit and swale meadows and pond margin habitats. Learn about interactions between animals and plants. First in a monthly series of field trips co-sponsored by the Portland Chapter and Portland Audubon Society. Over the field trip season we will explore a wide variety of habitats, visiting them when bird and flower activity are at a peak. Leisurely walk led by Dee White (NPSO) and Bob Wilson (PAS). Driving: 140 mi. RT. Meet, 8 A.M., ODOT lot, 60th & NE Glisan. Contact Dee White,

Mar. 30, Sat. Field Trip: Hoyt Arboretum. Look for signs of spring along trails of Portland's Hoyt Arboretum. First in a series of monthly wildflower walks for beginners, hosted by a veteran plant hunter. All walks to easily accessible locations, mostly within Portland metropolitan area. For this walk, meet at Arboretum Visitor Center, 3000 Sw Fairview Blvd., 10 A.M. Call Charlene Holzwarth, for more information.


Mar. 21, Thu. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Room 171, Science Building, Southern Oregon State College, Ashland. Don Freeman presents "Fish Hatchery Park -- Josephine County's Natural Jewel." For more information call Linda Mazzu.

South Coast

For information on South Coast Chapter, call Bruce Rittenhouse.

Umpqua Valley

Mar. 14, Thu. Meeting: 7 P.M. BLM Building, 777 Garden Valley Rd., Roseburg. Old growth and the spotted owl -- an evaluation of a B.B.C. video.

Mar. 16, Sat. Field Trip: View early spring bloom on the Agate Desert and on upper Table Rock in the Rogue Valley. Meet at BLM parking lot, 777 Garden Valley Rd., Exit 125, Roseburg, for 8 A.M. departure. Rendezvous, 10 A.M., BLM parking lot on Biddle Rd.. Medford. off exit 30 of I-5. Call Alan Romeril for more information.

Willamette Valley

Mar. 18, Mon. Meeting: United Methodist Church, 600 State St. NE, Salem. 7 P.M. Paul Hammond presents "Butterflies on native prairies."

Wm. Cusick

Mar. 20, Wed. Meeting: 7 P.M. Forest and Range Laboratory, Gekeler Lane and Avenue C, La Grande. Jon Skovlin, retired principal research scientist at the Laboratory will do a presentation based on the report he and Jack Ward Thomas wrote, "Interpreting long-term trends in Blue Mountain ecosystems from repeat photography." Photographs taken before 1925 were compared to more recent photos to interpret changes. Copies of the report are (or were) available at the Lab. Come join us for a fascinating evening!

Apr. 6, Sat. Work Day: Join the fun and learn about the process of growing native plants. The Nature Conservancy needs help planting native bunchgrass seeds in containers. The grass plugs will be grown in a nursery and outplanted at the Lawrence Grassland Preserve in the fall. Wear old clothes and bring gloves. Work should be finished by 1:00 P.M. Meet at Plantworks Nursery, 1805 U Ave., La Grande, 9 A.M.

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We Welcome New Members

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NPSO Board Meeting Highlights - Dave Dobak

The NPSO Board of Directors met on January 20, 1996. The Emerald Chapter hosted the meeting at Lane Community College.

Esther McEvoy is retiring after several years as Chair of the Education Committee. Jerry Igo was appointed as the new Chair. He views this activity as education and outreach combined, and is contemplating producing a 15 minute video explaining what NPSO is about, aimed at the general public, with copies distributed to each chapter. One of several responses to a recent questionnaire in the Bulletin about education activities pointed out that there is virtually no natural history education in elementary schools, and NPSO might develop programs to fill some of this void.

World Wide Web! Mike McKeag, of the Portland Chapter, demonstrated a proposed Web site he has composed for NPSO. World Wide Web presence is proposed primarily as an outreach to the education community, and therefore a means to draw new members. It is also a means of disseminating any educational materials developed in the future. Only one other native plant society is known to have a Web site; what Mike proposes is far more extensive than theirs [Since then, we have located a few more. - Ed]. For the April meeting Mike will write up a formal list of Web page contents and policy, for Board action. He would like input from members (and can be reached at Expect to be able to point and click on "NPSO" in May.

Money, however, was the main subject of the meeting.

Treasurer Jean France presented the financial summary for 1995. The surplus from previous years has been mostly used up. Net worth is (12/31/95) $12,900, including restricted funds (R&E and Leighton Ho). Since NPSO's annual income has grown to over $25,000 per year, the annual IRS filing has become more extensive and complex, and now requires regular consultation with a CPA.

Dan Luoma presented a severely pruned budget. Several years ago a surplus had accumulated, so during the past few years, expenditures on worthy projects were considered an appropriate means to deplete the surplus. This year we cannot continue the same spending without hitting zcro. The in- terns sponsored jointly by NPSO and Oregon De- partment of Agriculture, the Carex Working Group, the Oregon Flora and Atlas projects, and the soon-to-be-published history of northwest plant hunters will continue to receive funding, but at reduced levels. No funds are available for "cost share grants" with other groups, agencies or individuals. Research grants will be financed only from the Rare and Endangered Plant Fund and the Leighton Ho Memorial Fund. Dan Luoma suggested that chapters could look at whatever funds they may have accumulated, and consider filling some of the void in our grant activity.

Motivated by this fiscal picture, the Board voted to raise dues. The Board endorsed the general policy that revenue from dues should be sufficient to cover all our administrative and member service expenses, such as the Bulletin and Kalmiopsis. Revenue from donations (such as Environmental Federation of Oregon) and prolits from such activities as poster sales or the Symposium should be used only for research, education, and conservation activities benefiting the general public. Member service expenses add up to $13,100 annually. Since dues revenue is split 65% to the state and 35% to chapters, total dues revenue must be $20,150 to fully cover these expenses at current levels. The new dues schedule represents a 50% increase over the level which has been in effect since l 990, but will barely reach this revenue target even assuming no loss of membership! (Student $12, Regular $18, Family $24, Sustaining $50, Patron $100, Life $500).

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Short Wildflower Trails in the Columbia River Gorge: Meadow Hill Trail - Russ Jolley

Driving distance from Portland (mostly on I-84): 144 R.T. Driving route: 1-84 east to exit 69 (Mosier), then east 3 miles on Highway 30 to Memaloose Overlook at M.P. 76.3. Approximate hiking distance: 2 miles R.T. Approximate elevation gain: 300 feet.

This one-mile trail on National Forest land is part of the 5.5-mile Memaloose Loop Trail, enjoyed by several hiking groups in 1994 and 1995. In spring, hikers will see lots of grass widows, balsamroot, lupines, paintbrush, lomatiums, etc., but even after all the flowers are gone, the pine-oak savanna is lovely.

At this time, the trail should more accurately be called a "track," since at the insistence of the Forest Service, there are no signs or markings to indicate its location. The track only exists because many wildflower lovers have followed it, as in a pilgrimage.

Park at Memaloose Overlook. Walk west about 100 feet along the north side of Highway 30 to a 15-foot pine. Directly south across the highway is a lone 25-foot pine.

The track lies about 10 feet west (right) of this tree. The track leads south to an old road, crosses a dilapidated fence, and soon leaves the road, angling to the right through pine-oak woodland. The route slowly climbs to a broad low ridge, descends to another old road, crosses a little stream, then turns east up the grassy slope of Meadow Hill, where the track essentially disappears, but is no longer needed. The top of the hill (822 feet in elevation) provides a fine 360-degree view of the eastern Gorge.

Note: There is only a little bit of poison oak on this route. It is alongside the track a few yards beyond the stream crossing. Also, to avoid ticks, stay on the track away from brush and do not tarry in the damp grass at the stream crossing.

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A Letter to the Editor: The Sustainable Forestry Initiative - Connie Battaile

Dear NPSO:

I've just received my December Bulletin. Appreciated it as always. I do, however, have a perplexity. On page 138 is the "Sustainable Forestry Ballot Initiative" article. I assume that it is in the Bulletin because NPSO has taken a position in support of it. [See note at end] That being the case, I am wondering whether you know something that, I, as manager of a small family timberland in the Coast Range would love to know. Namely, how do you get Douglas fir to come up in a thinned stand in the Coast Range?

I have looked into this for several years and personally have yet to see it. Several years ago, on a tour of thinned stands, the foresters were talking about what it would take to get young Douglas fir to come in.... we were standing in the midst of a stand which had both large and small trees. Where did those little guys come from? [They] said Douglas fir reproduces in even-age stands; those are all the same age. Hmm. But, after thinning on our own land, I went about counting tree rings ... and lo, large and small trees were exactly the same age, 42 years. This was a natural stand which had come in after the land had been grazed.

Since then I have seen heavy thinnings of Douglas fir in which cedar came up in between, and heavy thinnings of ... in which hemlock came up, and heavy thinnings ... in which salal came up ferociously underneath, but I have never seen thinned Douglas fir with Douglas fir coming up below. This observation is, of course, congruent with the ecological niche which Douglas fir is said to occupy, of being a fire response species which comes up in single-age stands in mineral soil after a stand-replacement fire. (I am talking about the Coast Range here. I think it is different in southern and eastern Oregon, and maybe even in the Cascades.) In the Coast Range it is just not a shade tolerant tree, and languishes and dies if not given full light.

In other words, the only two ways I know of to replicate a Douglas fir stand in the Coast Range are either through catastrophic fire or through clear cutting.

I assume that either NPSO has other information about growing Douglas fir -- which I am truly eager to learn, as I don't like clear cuts either, for various reasons -- or else is not disturbed by the eventual prospect of there being no Douglas fir forests, including long in the future, no old-growth Douglas fir. This is because, with no clear cutting, there would be no new stands established except for those which come in if some major forest fire occurs, despite our best attempts to prevent fire.

There is also the question of seral stages. There has been (appropriately) so much focus on old growth that I think some of the public have gotten the idea that any other age of forest is a wasteland ... That doesn't seem to be the case to me. I see species of everything from fungi to wildlife that use one stage of forest regeneration but not the next stage. Some kinds of plant and animal life flourish in the clearings, others in the newly established forests, some in the "black forests" of Douglas fir 20 to 60 years old, some in the older forests, and some in the ancient forests. It seems to me that our concern would appropriately be to keep all seral stages, including mature forests and old growth, available and thriving.

Thanks for your consideration. I hope for some feedback.

[Editor's note: Articles appearing in the Bulletin and written by individuals reflect the opinion of the author, and the judgement of the editor as to their inlerest for members. They do not necessarily represent the views of the NPSO.]

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Botany Scholarships Available - Harriet Schoppert

The Jean Davis Memorial Fund is again offering a scholarship for the 1996-97 school year in the amount of $1000. This scholarship will be given to a student attending an Oregon college and who is enrolled in plant systemics or plant ecology. Students must have completed two years of satisfactory college work and be attending full time. The by-laws of this scholarship say all applications must be in by April 1. However, since this notice is late, the deadline will be extended to April 30, and the recipient will be chosen by June 1. To receive an application, please write to: Harriet Schoppert, 11265 Phantom, Ln., Stayton, OR 97383.

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Medicinal Plants - Richo Cech and Krista Thie

What medicinal plants in your bioregion are becoming more difficult to find, either as a result of over-harvest or of shrinking habitat? Think of both native and introduced plants. Please consider this question with the long view in mind. Our cultural proclivity is toward the failure to recognize the severity of our ecological impact before it is too late. The earth breathes long. Please be inclusive, and if you have any doubts whether a plant will become difficult to find in the foreseeable future, then write it down.

For instance, for me living in the Pacific Coastal/Cascadian forests, we not concerned about the sustainability of wild harvest of Achillea (a native plant) and Hypericum (introduced). Only the flowers are picked, which does not kill the plant, and the populations are widespread, nor are they threatened by logging, which actually opens up more of their habitat. On the other hand, we are concerned about Chimaphila umbellata (pipsissewa or prince's pine) which is getting harder to find, being old-growth dependent. Even simply snipping off the top two leafy nodes of this plant severely inhibits its growth for several years, and definitely reduces the vitality of the stand. Chimaphila goes on our list, as does Lomatium dissectum, which is not very common and is becoming more and more popular as a plant medicine.

Your assistance with this project is important to United Plant Savers and to the plants you use and respect. Please make your list as complete and meaningful as possible. We must identify the scope of our activity before we can proceed. This is a noble, necessary and urgent enterprise. Please give us your best effort and do not procrastinate. (United Plant Savers is newly-founded, non-profit organization dedicated to saving endangered and threatened medicinal plants. They can be reached at P.O. Box 420, E. Barre, Vermont 05649.) Send your list of plants to:

Richo Cech Horizon Herbs P.O.BOX 69 Williams, OR 97544 (541)846-6704

Are you seeing any plant populations declining and not knowing why? Do you see soil disturbances or evidence of harvesting? Please take note of this and share this information with us so that we can pass the word to other herb businesss. By observing, then educating, we can help change harvesting and use practices.

Some plants to look for:

Aconitum columbianum (monkshood) Toxic.
Used in very small amounts as medicine. A large herb company once asked me about wild harvesting this. Are they doing it? You don't need a lot, but can it sustain?
Aralia californica (spikenard) May help increase health.
Used for colds and flu, though yet not widely. Can this sustain with any wild harvesting?
Cimicifuga elata or C. laciniata (NW black cohosh or bugbane).
On rare plant lists and was mentioned in an herb class, to replace C. racimosa for easing menopause symptoms, perhaps useful for irritability, aches and pains. Have NPSO members seen this population decline?
Lomatium dissectum root (L. nudicaule seeds analog alternative).
Slow growing plant. Wild harvested now for at least one large herb company, and popularized as immune system aid. This needs to be cultivated.
Scrophularia californica (figwort).
We grow our own but is this collected in the wild? It's not in vogue now and that may be its saving as with other plants like many orchid species.
Scutellaria sp. (skullcap).
Cultivated for its relaxing qualities, but probably could not handle wild harvesting as it is found only occasionally.

Some books you may want to consult:

Thie, Krista. A Plant Lover's Guide to Wildcrafting: How to Preserve Wild Places and Harvest Medicinal Plants. Longevity Herb Press, 1549 W. Jewett Blvd., White Salmon, Washington 98672,1994.

Tilford, Gregory. Ecoherbalist's Fieldbook: Wildcrafting in the Mountain West. H.C. 33, Box 17, Conner, Montana 59827.

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Remember When...? - Jerry Igo

24 Years Ago

January 1972 Bulletin: "Saturday workshops will begin in Portland in January and continue through February. The purpose of the workshops is to increase the botanical knowledge of our members. They will also serve the purpose of getting members charged up about the coming field season when the wildflowers will begin to show."

Note: This has become an annual Portland Chapter activity and has seen some outstanding workshop leaders and educational programs.

18 Years Ago

1978 Bulletin: "The Oregon Rare and Endangered Plant Project is part of a continuing effort set forth by Dr. Kenton Chambers and Jean Siddall to help identify, compile information about, and protect the rare plants of Oregon. Currently they are writing status reports that will be used in the federal listing process to protect T/E plants under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Joining them in this work are Bonnie Brunkow, Lois Kemp, Carolyn Wright, Sue Yamamoto and John Bellman."

Note: An outgrowth of their work and succeeding efforts gave us the Oregon Endangered Species Act of 1987.

12 Years Ago

March 1984 Bulletin: "Emerald Chapter News: Rhoda Love will teach a native plant identification series through the Amazon Center this spring. An evening meeting will be led by Charlene Simpson and Dave Wagner. The purpose is to discuss this year's coming field season. The April meeting will be presented by Julie Kierstead on the Berry Botanic Garden seed bank."

Note: And year after year, chapter after chapter, these high quality programs go on.

If you have slides, prints, or written materials to contribute to the NPSO archives, please contact Jerry Igo, P.O. Box 603, Mosier, OR 97040.

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Congress and the Environment - Mariana D. Bronholdt

Recent reports indicate that neither the House nor the Senate will consider reauthorization of the Endangered Species Act for several months. However, it is possible that this is disinformation specifically intended to mislead environmentalists.

Several bills dealing with endangered species issues are still alive in both houses.


H.R. 2275, the Endangered Species and Conservation Act of 1995, (Young-Pombo), has been approved by the House Resource Committee. Designed to dismember the ESA, it is an extreme bill; even House Speaker Gingrich has said that it will not be brought to the floor for a vote, at least not in the foreseeable future.

GILCHREST: the Endangered Natural Legacy Protection Act of 1995 (Wayne Gilchrest, R-MD), a self-described "moderate" bill, was defeated in committee. Similar to the ESA reauthorization bill (Gerry Studds, D-MA) written last year, Gilchrest may reintroduce it on the House floor.

SAXTON: The Endangered Species Habitat Conservation Act of 1995 (Saxton, R-NJ), a second "moderate" alternative, is rumored to have won the support of Gilchrest, and may be introduced as the consensus moderate Republican bill on the House floor.

DEMOCRATS: No currently introduced or pending Democratic alternative bills. Democrats on the Resources Committee supported the Gilchrest bill and would probably support Gilchrest or Saxton on the House floor. Neither bill is entirely satisfactory to some environmental groups. Since both are Republican in origin, amendments to accomodate the Speaker are likely, resulting in a less moderate Republican "consensus."


S. 768 (Gorton, R-WA), defines "take" as a "direct action" by a person that actually injures or kills a member of an endangered species, has little support and is unlikely to move in the Senate.

S. 1364, the Endangered Species Conservation Act (Kempthorne, R-ID), ends species recovery as the ESA's goal and offers financial compensation for private property owners who can show a loss of future property values. Opposed by the Environment and Public Works Chair John Chafee (R- RI), it is heing heard in Kempthorne's Drinking Water and Fisheries subcommittee. It is unlikely that this bill can be reported out of committee without Chafee's support.

DEMOCRATS: No Democratic alternatives currently introduced or pending. Drinking Water and Fisheries sub-committee member Harry Reid (D-NV) has been working on a bill now on hold.

Of immediate interest is H.R. 2745, Restoration of Natural Resources Laws on the Public Lands Act of 1995, (Furse, R-D). This repeals the emergency salvage timber sale program enacted as part of Public Law 104-19. It has been referred to the Committee on Agriculture and to the Committee on Resources, "for a period to be subsequently determined by the Speaker." "Salvage" harvest is currently in full sway in several federal forests in Oregon. Ms. Furse's co-sponsors do not currently include any other Oregon or Pacific Northwest representative. Please write or call your own representative urging him to co-sponsor this bill and also to urge the Speaker to bring it to the House floor in a timely way. Remember to request a reply and a report on his actions.

WYDEN: Now that we, the people of Oregon, have elected Ron Wyden to Packwood's unexpired term, it behooves us to indicate to him our expectations. Congratulate him and let him know of our deep opposition to current salvage logging activity and urge him to support and work for a strong ESA. Pending establishment of his Senatorial office and phone in D.C., he can be contacted as follows:

Senator Ron Wyden 500 E. Multnomah, Suite 205 Portland, OR 97232 (503) 231-2300.

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Horses at Catherine Creek - Russ Jolley

In July, 1995, after 14 months of planning, including massive public involvement, the Catherine Creek Open Space Plan was adopted by the Forest Service and signed by Scenic Area Manger Art Carroll. Two key provisions of the Open Space Plan are:

1) "Horse use would not be allowed anywhere in the planning area."

2) "The Atwnod Road would be designated as a hiking and non-motorized biking route."

However, the Forest Service appears to have forgotten these provisions of the Open Space Plan. They now propose that horses be allowed to cross through the Catherine Creek Natural Area to the Atwood Road, which they could then use for its entire length through the natural area. This represents a clear violation of the above provisions of the 1995 Open Space Plan.

In a recent letter rejecting a trail proposal that conflicted with the Open Space Plan, Scenic Area Manager Art Carroll wrote, "it is also important to be true to the planning process to date. If we were to re-open the issue about trail proposals, then we should re-open other issues ..."

We agree. The Forest Service should indeed be "true to the planning process." For this reason, and to preserve the integrity of the Catherine Creek Natural Area, the Forest Service needs to withdraw the proposal to let horses inside the gate at Catherine Creek. Please write (by April 1,1996) to the Forest Service. Remind them that their proposals violate the Open Space Plan. Insist that the Forest Service be "true to the planning process." Write to:

Art Carroll National Scenic Area Hood River, OR 97031

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National Wildlife Federation Weekend Conference - Beth Stout

"Home is Where the Habitat Is - Gardening for Wildlife and Community," the second annual National Wildlife Federation conference, will be held in Portland at the Lorenzen Center, Legacy Emanuel Hospital and Health Center, as part of the NWF Environmental Weekend, April 20-21. It will include workshops on gardening for wildlife, stream and pond construction, gardening without pesticides, and a hands-on session where participants will help install a demonstration garden at the hospital. The keynote speaker will be Sara Stein, author of Noah's Garden: Restoring the Ecology of Our Own Backyards. Registration is $35. To register contact Beth Stout, National Wildlife Federation, (503) 222-1429, stout@

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© Copyright 1996 Native Plant Society of Oregon, All Rights Reserved

Last Modified July 2, 1996