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NPSO Logo Bulletin of the Native Plant Society of Oregon

Dedicated to the enjoyment, conservation, and study of Oregon's native vegetation.

February 1996

Volume 29 · Number 2

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In This Issue

State News

Jul. 12-14 Annual Meeting: At Joseph, Oregon. Hosted by the Blue Mountain and William Cusick chapters. Does anyone have ideas for a banquet speaker? (Someone who knows the flora of the Wallowas, or maybe the endemics and associated geology and soils). We have some ideas but would like input. Contact Barbara Russell.

Apr. State Board Meeting: At 10 A.M. in a place and on a date to be announced.

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Chapter News

Blue Mountain

Feb. 5, Mon. Meeting: 7 P.M. Small Business Development Center, SE 1st & Dorian, Pendleton. A presentation on canyonland flora by Charlie Johnson, USFS ecologist.

Mar. 4, Mon. Meeting: 7 P.M. Small Business Development Center, SE 1st & Dorian, Pendelton. A presentation on tree death and decay in forest ecosystems by Catherine Park of La Grande.


Feb. 12, Mon. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Room 2087, Cordley Hall, OSU campus. Steve Gisler will give a presentation on "Preliminary studies of reproductive attrition in Sidalcea nelsoniana, a locally threatened plant." For more information, contact Esther McEvoy.

Feb. 17, Sat. Field Trip: Snowshoeing in the Cascades. Meet at the Campus Beanery, 26th and Monroe, at 9 A.M. Joint trip with the Emerald Chapter, which see for details. Call Loren Russell, for more information.


Feb. 17, Sat. Field Trip: Snowshoeing trip in the Cascades to identify conifers. Joint trip with the Corvallis Chapter. Bring snowshoes, warm clothes, hand lens and lunch. Be prepared for inclement weather. Meet at S. Eugene H.S., 9 A.M. Call Bruce Newhouse, for more information.

Feb. 26, Mon.Meeting: 7 P.M. at Morse Ranch Park. Directions from downtown Eugene: Take Willamette St. south to Crest Dr. (right through "Y" for Donald, between 32nd and 33rd Ave. E.). Go right (W) on Crest Dr. 4 blocks, turn right into Morse Ranch parking lot. Our local bryophyte expert, Dave Wagner, will present some new insights on "Plants with hidden marriage." For more information call Kathy Pendergrass.

Mar. 25, Mon.Meeting: 7 P.M. Morse Ranch Park. (For directions see above). Our special guest from Salem, Wilbur Bluhm, will present an interesting and gorgeous multi-media slide show on "Oregon alpine wildflowers." For more information call Kathy Pendergrass.

Apr. 22, Mon. Meeting: 7 P.M. Morse Ranch Park. (For directions see ahove). Cathy Whitlock, a researcher at the U. of O. will fascinate us with her findings on "The development of Pacific Northwest forests since the last ice age." Call Kathy Pendergrass for more information.

May 27, Mon. Meeting: 7 P.M. Morse Ranch Park. (For directions see above). Scott Sundberg, from the OSU Herbarium, will update us on the Oregon Flora project, which is aimed at developing an up-to-date flora on the higher plants of Oregon (a book to replace Peck and Hitchcock et. al.) For additional information, call Kathy Pendergrass.

High Desert

Feb. 27, Tue. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Central Oregon Environmental Center, 16 NW Kansas, Bend. Rick Dewey of COEC will talk about his interest in the mosses of central Oregon.

Mar. 26, Tue.Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Central Oregon Environmental Center, 16 NW Kansas, Bend. Staff of the Hart Mountain Antelope Refuge will talk about vegetation management and rare plants in the Refuge. There has been no livestock grazing in the Refuge for five years and native grasses are rebounding! We will plan a spring field trip to the Refuge to see Oregon's high desert at its best.

Apr. 23, Tue. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Central Oregon Environmental Center, 16 NW Kansas, Bend. Dr. Tony Svecar of OSU's Northern Great Basin Experiment Station will talk about his research on the native grasslands of central Oregon. We will also plan a summer field trip to see the projects.


Feb. 7, Wed. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Mosier School. Michael Igo, the NPSO president, will discuss landscaping and native plant seed collection plans for the Gorge Discovery Center and the Chenoweth Interchange.

Mar. 6, Wed. Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Mosier School. Lance Holmberg, botanist for the Bear Springs Ranger District, Mt. Hood National Forest, will give a presentation on mosses.

North Coast

Meeting: For information contact Christine Stanley.


Feb. 10, Sat. Workshop: 9 A.M. Plant Identification Workshop, Session I. The first of a two-part introduction to plant identification, offered as preparation for the coming field trip season. Do you want to learn more about our native flora, but are bewildered by the huge number and variety of plants, frustrated by keys that refuse to unlock their secrets, and can't make sense of your notes from past field trips? This workshop is for you. Forest Service botanists Marty Stein and Molly Sullivan help you make sense of this seeming chaos with an introduction to the basic principles of plant taxonomy, definitions of botanical terms, lessons in plant keys, and practice in recognizing the main features of the most common plant families. Held at Leach Botanic Garden, 6704 SE 122nd, Portland. Pre-registration required. Fee $15 members, $20 non-members. Contact Michael McKeag,

Feb. 13, Tue. Meeting: 7 P.M. First Methodist Church, 1838 SW Jefferson, Portland. Trygve Steen will speak on the wetland plants of Oregon and Washington, presenting his photographs which illustrate a recently published book of the same name. The meeting room will open at 6:30 for socializing.

Feb. 17, Sat. Workshop: 9 A.M. Plant Identification Workshop, Session II. See Feb. 10 for details.

Feb. 18, Sun. Field Trip & Work Party: 9:30 A.M. Mary S. Young State Park. Walk and workout at the park where the trilliums will be about to emerge. Naturalist and state park ranger Mike Niss will lead us through special features of this mixed-forest area bordering the Willamette River between Lake Oswego and West Linn. Approx. 1 mi., some up hill. Then all who wish to help with ivy removal can join in Phase I of the native plant restoration project. Great upper body exercise pulling vines off trees. Boots and gloves necessary. Bring clippers, loppers, pruning saw, pry bar if you can. Not for small children. Instruction and limited loaner tools available. Meet in parking lot near restrooms. Contact Diane Bauer.

Feb. 24, Sat. Workshop: 8:30 A.M. OSU Herbarium. Dr. Aaron Liston, director of the Oregon State University Herbarium will lead a tour of the Herbarium and outline the history of herbaria, the history of the collections at OSU, curation practices, taxonomic research, the Oregon Flora Project and Oregon Atlas Project. There may be an opportunity for some hands-on exploration of taxonomic resources (herbaria, botanical gardens, data- bases, etc.) on the Internet. Driving: 160 R.T. Meet at 8:30 A.M., Tualatin Fred Meyer (just off I-5 at the Tualatin exit). Contact Michael McKeag,


Feb. 15, Thu.Meeting: 7:30 P.M. Room 171, Science Building, Southern Oregon State College, Ashland. Bruce Rittenhouse presents "Western lily recovery efforts and Wildflowers of the southern Oregon coast." Bruce is a district botanist with the Coos Bay District, Bureau of Land Management.

South Coast

For information on South Coast Chapter, call Bruce Rittenhouse.

Umpqua Valley

Feb. 8, Thu Meeting: 7 P.M. Room 310, Douglas County Courthouse. Discuss the Oregon Plant Atlas Project. We have a coordinator and now we need volunteers to fill in the few remaining holes in Douglas County.

Feb. 24, Sat.Field Trip: View early spring bloom at Cow Creek, Berry Creek, Rogue River's Table Rock, or a plant atlas project vacancy. Destination to be announced. Meet at BLM parking lot, 777 Garden Valley Rd., exit 125, Roseburg. Leave at 8 A.M. For more information call Alan Romeril.

Willamette Valley

Feb. 26, Mon. Meeting: 7 P.M. United Methodist Church, 600 State St. NE, Salem. Don Eastman will give a slide presentation on "A view of the scrophulariales of Oregon." Note: This is one week later than the usual meeting date.

Wm. Cusick

Feb. 21, Wed. Meeting: 7 P.M. Forest and Range Laboratory, Gekeler and C Aves., La Grande. Dave Larson, manager of Ladd Marsh, will present a program on the Marsh, including its history and mission and current activities. He would like our help in compiling a plant species list, and possibly a collection of plants found at the Marsh. Come enjoy the slide show and see if you want to participate in the project. This would be a fun opportunity to learn how to identify, collect, document and store plant specimens.

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1996 NPSO/ODA Conservation Biology Internships - Tom Kaye

During the 1996 field season, the Oregon Department of Agriculture and the Native Plant Society of Oregon will once again sponsor internships in plant conservation biology. This program, in effect since 1990, is intended to provide an initial research experience to individuals considering conservation biology as a career choice. Open to anyone (except previous interns), priority will be given to life science (especially botany or biology) undergraduates, recent graduates, or individuals seriously thinking of a change in career orientation towards conservation.

We are currently recruiting for three full-time summer interns to assist with our program's ongoing field projects. Interns contribute field and/or laboratory assistance to ODA/OSU scientists working on several subjects during the summer. The internships will run 16 weeks from early May through August, and will be involved with a diversity of projects dealing with plant demography, population monitoring habitat management, species reintroduction, and plant breeding system studies. Also, interns will be expected to contribute an article to the NPSO Bulletin summarizing some aspect of their summer work.

Interns receive a summer stipend of $2500 in addition to a trip stipend of $20-$40 per day for food and lodging. Extensive field work (often including overnight car camping) will be required, so applicants should be in good physical condition. All activities will be coordinated out of Oregon State University in Corvallis, requiring candidates to live in the mid-Willamette Valley area.

The deadline for internship applications is April 5,1996. To apply, send a letter of interest, copies of college transcripts, and a writing sample (such as a recent term paper or essay) to the address below. Finalists may be interviewed in Corvallis or Salem, Oregon. If you have any questions, please contact:

Tom Kaye or Steve Gisler, Department of Botany and Plant Palhology, Oregon State University 2082 Cordley Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331-2902, (541) 737-2346 or 737-4420, email:

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Environmental Federation Update - Maya Muir

The Environmental Federation of Oregon successfully completed its 1995 fund raising campaign having raised more than $350,000 for member groups. This was the first year of EFO's ambitious three year plan for expanding into new businesses. With the addition of Kaiser Permanente, Spectra Physics in Eugene and several other businesses, EFO gained access to more than 8000 new employees, making it a successful beginning. Despite layoffs at many companies, and an atmosphere affected by down-sizing, EFO Development Director Sarah Sameh reports that the campaigns received much enthusiastic support.

Employees of the state of Oregon formed a very strong committee which is developing a five year marketing plan to increase charitable contributions to all participating funds, including EFO. Other companies have contributed by encouraging their employees to volunteer with member groups, and supporting them for doing so.

EFO will be gearing up soon for participation in the annual Earth Day celebration in April. See the March Bulletin for more information on how you can get involved!

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Columbia Hawthorn: A Phantom Taxon - Rhoda Love

The current work on Flora of North America is resulting in some name changes of familiar Northwest plants. One of these is our Columbia hawthorn, Crataegus columbiana.

Crataegus columbiana was published by Howell in his Flora of Northwest America, in 1898. The closely related C. piperi was published by Britton three years later, and made a variety of C. columbia by Eggleston in 1908. Much later, in 1965, a midwestern author, Kruschke, made piperi a variety of a Rocky Mountain hawthom, C. chrysocarpa, a species not at present familiar to us.

In the Pacific Northwest, we are accustomed to the treatment of Hitchcock and Cronquist (1961) which recognizes the taxon C. columbiana with two varieties, columbiana and piperi.

As part of his work on the western red-fruited hawthorns for Flora of North Amcrica, J.B. Phipps of the University of Western Ontario, has taken a closer look at both our varieties of Columbia hawthorn and decided that, due to an error by Howell, the taxon C. columbiana var. columbiana never existed and is, as Phipps calls it, "a phantom taxon!"

A full account of Phipps' fascinating detective work can be found in his recent paper in the journal Taxon (August, 1995). As he relates the story, Howell designated no type specimen for Columhia's hawthorn, but he apparently did examine a number of herbarium sheets collected by Gorman at Pendleton and at least one sheet collected by Piper at Spokane. These sheets were located in the U of O Herbarium, and Phipps and others have determined that the Pendleton sheets are really Douglas' hawthorn (C. douglasii), while the Spokane sheet shows hairy material that is typical of C. columbiana var. piperi.

The upshot of this is that Phipps has determined that Crataegus columbiana var. columbiana does not, and never did, exist and that we are left with the one species, C. piperi. If one accepts this treatment, the matter must now stand here: Columbia hawthorn is dropped and our hairy, long-thorned, red-fruited hawthorn of the eastern Columbia basin is Crataegus piperi, Piper's hawthorn.

But, probably there is more to come, for Phipps hints at the end of his Taxon paper that, after further study, he may synonymize Piper's hawthorn with the widespread Rocky Mountain species, C. chrysocarpa, and this latter will then become the name of what we have known as Columbia hawthorn. We await further developments!

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Rare, Threatened and Endangered Plants and Animals of Oregon

The 1995 version ot the booklet, "Rare, Threatened and Endangered Plants and Animals of Oregon," is now available. To obtain copies, please send a check or money order to the Oregon Natural Heritage Program, 821 SE 14th Ave., Portland, OR 97214. For one copy, costs are $6.00, plus $2.00 for shipping and handling. For more than one copy, please add an additional fifty cents per copy. There are no shipping and handling charges if you piek up the booklet at the ONHP office. We are unable to accept payment by credit card.

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National Wildlife Federation Weekend Conference

"Home is Where the Habitat Is - Gardening for Wildlife and Community," the second annual National Wildlife Federation Conference, will be held in Portland at the Lorenzen Center, Legacy Emanuel Hospital and Health Center, as part of the National Wildlife Federation Environmental Weekend, April 20-21. The conference will include workshops on gardening for wildlife, stream and pond construction, gardening without pesticides, and a hands-on session where participants will help install a demonstration garden at the hospital. The keynote speaker will be Sara Stein, author of Noah's Garden: Restoring the Ecology of Our Own Backyards.

The registration fee is $35. For more information, contact Beth Stout, National Wildlife Federation, (503) 222-1429,

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Native Plant Society of Oregon Members Key to Restoration Project - Diane Bauer

It's time to give an update, and express thanks to Native Plant Society of Oregon members who have helped launch a restoration effort at Mary S. Young State Park.

This 130+ acre park on the banks of the Willamette River near West Linn was donated to the State with the provision that it be kept undeveloped, except for trails, restrooms, and the existing ball field. The majority of the land is in mixed woods and the Willamette Greenway protects the shore area to the north and south. As many of us know, state agencies have seen repeated funding cuts, and sadly, now there is no budget for removal of invasive vegetation.

Enter the ivy blight. English ivy (Hedra helix) escapes from yards via trimmings, wind and birds. On the ground at Mary S. Young State Park it's overgrowing Trillium ovatum (trillium), Achlys triphylla (vanillaleaf), Vancouveria hexandra (inside-out flower) and many more native species. It climbs up trees into the canopy, where it flowers and seeds -- further infecting the ground below. It shades out tree leaves, interfering with photosynthesis.

A great deal of appreciation is due NPSO members who have pitched in to remedy the situation: Mary Vogel, for her time and expertise; Melba Dlugonski, Diane Froode, Dave Froode and Barbara Linden for their heroic work -- first facing those meetings where we tried to decide where in the mess to start, and second for coming back to begin cutting and pulling. (Phase I is tree rescue, Phase 2 is ground cleaning, Phase 3 is replanting).

The project is structured through Partnership for Parks, an umbrella organization of Oregon state parks, which allows us to work without setting up a separate entity such as a friends group. This saved us from getting bogged down in administrative details.

We receive assistance from personnel at Tryon Creek State Park in the form of some loaner tools and their fielding of calls about the project. Steve Mills, arborist for the city of West Linn, is helping with publicity and bringing in more participants. The No Ivy League of Forest Park has provided advice and encouragement. A nice little piece of habitat is on its way to being protected and restored, thanks to the efforts of NPSO volunteers. An information sheet is available by calling (503) 657-9448.

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Oregon Clean Stream Initiative - Staff of the Oregon Clean Streams Initiative

Livestock exact an enormous cost on native plant communities. R.N. Mack has documented the dramatic changes that have taken place in the plant communities of the Intermountain West in his article, "Alien Plant Invasion in the Intermountain West: A Case Study." (In: Ecology of Biological Invasions of North America and Hawaii. NY: Springer-Verlag, 1986.) Mack explains that most perennial grasses in this area have growth patterns that render them relatively intolerant to grazing and trampling. Historic importing of non-native plants and seeds (often for livestock forage), in conjunction with the overgrazing of native plant communities, created prime areas for the establishment of alien plants. As a result, the region continues to witness the spread of such weedy species as yellow star thistle and cheatgrass, reducing habitat for native wildlife and compromising the health of riparian and upland ecosystems.

Livestock also cause extensive damage to streamside areas and water quality. Next time you hike along your favorite creek, take a minute to look around and see the tall trees shading its water, the lush, green plants caressing its surface and the birds and other animals living on its banks. Unfortunately, many of Oregon's streams and rivers are not so picturesque: they have shallow, warm water that spreads out over disappearing banks; few trees or plants cushion these banks and there is little shelter for fish, birds, insects and other animals; and those plants that do thrive are often invasive, weedy species.

Luckily, people throughout Oregon are coming together to protect their water and native ecosystems. Citizen volunteers will soon take to the streets with petitions in hand to collect more than 72,000 needed signatures to get the Oregon Clean Stream Initiative on the 1996 state ballot.

Citizens supporting this Initiative are concerned about the effects cattle have on riparian ecosystems. You will notice that they tend to congregate near streams. This "streamside loafing" tramples vegetation, compacts fragile soil, and erodes streambanks. Grazing impacts stream channels by widening and flattening the banks, providing little or no shading or cover for fish and increasing water temperatures to unhealthy or even deadly levels. Erosion and sedimentation on stream beds destroy fish spawning and rearing habitat.

Pollution caused by livestock defecation lowers oxygen levels in the water, suffocating fish and increasing bacteria that threaten human health. Each year in Oregon, the average cow defecates 443 pounds of manure into streams, negatively impacting more than 9,300 Oregon river miles. On federal land owned by the Bureau of Land Management 70% - 90% of natural streamside ecosystems are gone -- a loss which greatly degrades the health of streams for fish and wildlife, recreation and drinking water. Anywhere unmanaged livestock graze in streamside "riparian" areas, the chances are, damage is being done to fish and wildlife habitat, drinking water and recreational sites.

The Oregon Clean Stream Initiative is being launched to halt further pollution of Oregon's water and the surrounding areas by livestock. The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality has set state standards to identify "water quality limited" streams. The Initiative will focus on these polluted waters and take the first step to clean up one of the major polluters of Oregon's water -- livestock.

This Initiative only affects livestock operators who do not manage their animals in a responsible way. Ranchers having a grazing management plan that complies with state water quality standards will not be affected. For those who must comply, ranchers are given at least five years -- sometimes ten -- to make the necessary changes in their operations. The Act also supports tax credits and pubic funds to assist livestock operators with compliance.

Already, there are a plethora of funding programs for riparian fences and landowners pay very little out of their own pockets to build these structures that benefit downstream users, fish, wildlife, and also their own livestock operations. Fences can increase the water table, increase property values, and protect calves from being swept away in the spring runoff. Many ranchers recoup big rewards for this small financial investment. The financial rewards of riparian fences flow to the community as well. A recent study by Oregon State University found riparian restoration on the polluted Tualatin River could result in a savings of more than one million dollars annually in reduced dredging and water treatment costs. The study revealed that benefits could easily be greater than costs.

The Oregon Clean Stream Initiative needs volunteers to collect signatures, help with fundraising, promote public education, and help manage and organize the campaign. Donations will earn individuals a $50 tax credit and couples $100, money which can be deducted directly from the amount you owe the state at tax time. For more information, or to schedule a speaker, call Ashley, (541) 389-8367. Donations may be sent to OCSI, 16 NW Kansas St., Bend, OR 97701.

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Tree School '96 Coming

The annual Clackamas Tree School is scheduled for Saturday, March 16 at the Clackamas Community College in Oregon City. The all-day event offers 35 different classes designed for woodland owners, Christmas tree growers and home owners -- anyone interested in trees. Registration information for Tree School is now available by contacting the Oregon State University Extension Service in Oregon City at 655-8631. Preregistration is recommended to ensure class availability since some sessions have limited space. The registration fee for the Tree School is $25 and includes classes attended, lunch, an exhibit area, and transportation to field sites. Tree School is sponsored by the OSU Extension Service, Clackamas County Farm Forestry Association and Clackamas Community College.

Some of the sessions are:

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Remember When...? - Jerry Igo

In the June, 1986 Bulletin, on the occasion of the 25th birthday of the Native Plant Society of Oregon, an article appeared which looked back to the Society's origins. On this 35th birthday of NPSO, we present some excerpts from that article.

"Leonard Wiley, an amateur naturalist and a writer, who called together the first meeting of the Native Plant Society on February 6, 1961, acted as chairman until the election of the first president, Carolyn Simmons, in October 1962."

"There were 67 members in 1967, centered in Portland. In 1976 Ruth Hansen was elected president. She had a vision of seeing Native Plant Society chapters all over our state. Already there were members living in a dozen counties from the coast to the desert, and to southern Oregon. Frank Lang and others in Ashland were eager to proceed. The Siskiyou Chapter was formed Jan. 13, 1977, with Dave Garcia as the first president. The Willamette Valley Chapter followed, Nov. 1977, with Russ Graham as president. The Mid-Columbia Chapter came next in May 1978, headed by Keith Chamberlain. Then Blue Mountain ... June 1979, with Harry Oswald. Emerald Chapter ... July 1979, with Dave Wagner. High Desert Chapter ... June 1980, with Joyce Bork. Corvallis Chapter ... April 1982, with Esther McEvoy. North Coast ... January 1985, with Richard Smith. William Cusick Chapter ... May 1985, with Andrew Kratz."

[Column editor's note: Since then we have added South Coast and Umpqua Valley chapters and we will undoubtedly see more in the future.]

"Ruth Hansen, who surely deserves the title of founder of the state society, was named its first president at the first annual dinner, May 15, 1977, in Portland."

"The Bulletin of the Native Plant Society of Oregon began as a single page issue in 1967, and has progressed to its present form."

In coming issues we will review things that have developed: policies, field trips, annual conferences, workshops, symposia, seminars and legislative support ... that have made NPSO a strong force for enjoyment, conservation, and study of Oregon's native vegetation. If you have written material, photographs, or other artifacts you wish to contribute to the archives of NPSO, please contact Jerry Igo, P.O. Box 603, Mosier, OR 97040.

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© Copyright 1996 Native Plant Society of Oregon, All Rights Reserved

Last Modified July 2, 1996